Dispersals of the Siberian Y-chromosome haplogroup Q in Eurasia Abstract: The human Y-chromosome has proven to be a powerful tool for tracing the paternal history of human populations and genealogical ancestors. The human Y-chromosome haplogroup Q is the most frequent haplogroup in the Americas. Previous studies have traced the origin of haplogroup Q to the region around Central Asia and Southern Siberia. Although the diversity of haplogroup Q in the Americas has been studied in detail, investigations on the diffusion of haplogroup Q in Eurasia and Africa are still limited. In this study, we collected 39 samples from China and Russia, investigated 432 samples from previous studies of haplogroup Q, and analyzed the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) subclades Q1a1a1-M120, Q1a2a1-L54, Q1a1b-M25, Q1a2-M346, Q1a2a1a2-L804, Q1a2b2-F1161, Q1b1a-M378, and Q1b1a1-L245. Through NETWORK and BATWING analyses, we found that the subclades of haplogroup Q continued to disperse from Central Asia and Southern Siberia during the past 10,000 years. Apart from its migration through the Beringia to the Americas, haplogroup Q also moved from Asia to the south and to the west during the Neolithic period, and subsequently to the whole of Eurasia and part of Africa. Die Publikation referenziert auch eine beachtliche Menge an weiteren Artikeln, die derzeit den Stand zur Migration in Neolithikum (bzw. bzgl. der genetischen Wurzeln der Haplogruppe auch davor) repräsentieren. Dabei gibt es regelrechte geografische Rundumschläge: The ancestors of present-day Native Americans migrated to the Americas from Siberia via the Beringia around 16 KYA (Raghavan et al. 2015; Llamas et al. 2016). Q1a2a1-L54 and its subclade Q1a2a1a1-M3 are the two predominant subclades of haplogroup Q found on both sides of the Bering Strait. Q1a2a1-L54 has spread throughout Northern Asia, the Americas, and Western and Central Europe (Raff and Bolnick 2014; Rasmussen et al. 2014). An ancient individual of the Clovis culture belonged to Q1a2a1-L54 (xQ1a2a1a1-M3) (O’Rourke and Raff 2010; Rasmussen et al. 2014). Q1a2a1a1-M3, one of the most thoroughly studied subclades within haplogroup Q, is frequent both in the Chukotka Peninsula of Siberia (close to Alaska) and the Americas (Lell et al. 2002). Previous studies indicated that Q1a2a1a1-M3 migrated from Siberia to the Americas and partially returned to Siberia (Hammer et al. 1997; Lell et al. 1997; Bortolini et al. 2003; Pakendorf et al. 2007). The estimated time of Q1a2a1a1-M3 is 13-22 KYA (Dulik et al. 2012a). Q1a2a1a1a-M19, a subclade of Q1a2a1a1-M3, remained in Southern America and has a similarly diversified pattern with its upstream lineage. The age of Q1a2a1a1a-M19 is approximately 7–8 KYA (Bortolini et al. 2003; Jota et al. 2011).