Die Neolithische Revolution in Europa - Wie und warum?

Dieses Thema im Forum "Frühzeit des Menschen" wurde erstellt von Pope, 21. Juni 2007.

  1. Heine

    Heine Aktives Mitglied


    Das Weizenkorn

    Nochmal zum angeblich 8000 Jahre alten Weizenkorn, das vor Englands Küste gefunden wurde und einen frühen Getreide-Fernhandel zwischen nahöstlichen Bauern und nordwesteuropäischen Jägern und Sammlern nahelegen sollte. Voriges Jahr war hier darüber diskutiert worden:
    http://www.geschichtsforum.de/f22/d...a-wie-und-warum-16398/index10.html#post739327
    http://www.geschichtsforum.de/f22/h...der-fernreisende-38578/index9.html#post739467

    Die Veröffentlichung klang spektakulär und wie so häufig ging die spätere Richtigstellung unter. Zufällig entdeckt:

    https://www.archaeologie-online.de/magazin/nachrichten/zweifel-am-steinzeit-weizenhandel-37153/
     
  2. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

  3. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter


    Ist vor ein paar Tagen in der Nature publiziert.
    Mit den erwähnten 3 Zentren Anatolien-Südliche Levante-Zagros
    http://www.nature.com/nature/journa...ture19310.html?WT.feed_name=subjects_genetics
     
  4. Heine

    Heine Aktives Mitglied

    Vielen Dank für den Hinweis! Leider sieht man derzeit nur den/das Abstract. Eine Feststellung scheint sich von Broushaki et. al zu unterscheiden.
     
  5. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Nach einigen Suchseiten (4. oder 5.) kommt ein preview.:scheinheilig:

    Ja, die Zagros-Migration über den Kaukasus wird erwähnt, aber mE nicht datiert und die Feststellung ist erst auf die frühe Bronzezeit bezogen.
     
  6. Heine

    Heine Aktives Mitglied

    Gefunden ;) Danke!
     
  7. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

  8. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Die Ablagerungen von Zahnstein durch Nahrungsaufnahme enden logischerweise mit dem Tod des Individuums.

    Zahnsteinanalysen werden nun benutzt, um die Neolithisierung bzw. die fortschreitende Verbreitung der Landwirtschaft nachzuweisen, hier in der Balkan-"Kontaktzone" beim Übergang vom späten Mesolithikum zum Neolithikum (transition phase):

    Ancient dental plaque sheds new light on the diet of Mesolithic foragers in the Balkans | EurekAlert! Science News

    "Although researchers agree that Mesolithic diet in the Danube Gorges was largely based on terrestrial, or riverine protein-rich resources, the team also found that starch granules preserved in the dental calculus from Vlasac were consistent with domestic species such as wheat (Triticum monococcum, Triticum dicoccum) and barley (Hordeum distichon) [Weizen, Gerste], which were also the main crops found among Early Neolithic communities of southeast Europe.

    Domestic species were consumed together with other wild species of the Aveneae tribe (oats), Fabaeae tribe (peas and beans) [Hafer, Erbsen, Bohnen] and grasses of the Paniceae tribe.

    These preserved starch granules provide the first direct evidence that Neolithic domestic cereals had already reached inland foragers deep in the Balkan hinterland by c. 6600 BC. Their introduction in the Mesolithic societies was likely eased by social networks between local foragers and the first Neolithic communities."
     
  9. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

  10. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Eine neue Studie zur Ausbreitung der neolithischen Revolution in Ostueropa, wofür es mangels "Material" bislang nur wenige humangenetische Studien gab.

    Mitochondrial DNA analysis of eneolithic trypillians from Ukraine reveals neolithic farming genetic roots
    Mitochondrial DNA analysis of eneolithic trypillians from Ukraine reveals neolithic farming genetic roots

    Es geht um die Cucuteni-Tripillian-Kultur.
    https://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cucuteni-Kultur

    Nach mtDNA-Untersuchungen scheint hier ebenfalls die Ausbreitung des typischen "anatolischen neolitischen DNA-Pakets" wie für andere Teile Europas vorzuliegen, was entsprechende Migrationen (über eine "kulturelle Diffusion" hinaus) voraussetzt.

    Alles weitere aus dem abstract:

    "The agricultural revolution in Eastern Europe began in the Eneolithic with the Cucuteni-Trypillia culture complex. In Ukraine, the Trypillian culture (TC) existed for over two millennia (ca. 5,400–2,700 BCE) and left a wealth of artifacts. Yet, their burial rituals remain a mystery and to date almost nothing is known about the genetic composition of the TC population. One of the very few TC sites where human remains can be found is a cave called Verteba in western Ukraine. This report presents four partial and four complete mitochondrial genomes from nine TC individuals uncovered in the cave. The results of this analysis, combined with the data from previous reports, indicate that the Trypillian population at Verteba carried, for the most part, a typical Neolithic farmer package of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) lineages traced to Anatolian farmers and Neolithic farming groups of central Europe. At the same time, the find of two specimens belonging to haplogroup U8b1 at Verteba can be viewed as a connection of TC with the Upper Paleolithic European populations. At the level of mtDNA haplogroup frequencies, the TC population from Verteba demonstrates a close genetic relationship with population groups of the Funnel Beaker/ Trichterbecker cultural complex from central and northern Europe (ca. 3,950–2,500 BCE)."
     
  11. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Tierhaltung und Landwirtschaft / Publikationen

    Gleich drei neue Publikationen aus den letzten Tagen zur Viehhaltung, Milchwirtschaft, Landwirtschaft:

    aus den ProcBiolSci: The evolution of dual meat and milk cattle husbandry in Linearbandkeramik societies
    Cattle husbandry in Linearbandkeramik | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences
    (Freier Zugang)
    Abstract:
    Cattle dominate archaeozoological assemblages from the north-central Europe between the sixth and fifth millennium BC and are frequently considered as exclusively used for their meat. Dairy products may have played a greater role than previously believed. Selective pressure on the lactase persistence mutation has been modelled to have begun between 6000 and 4000 years ago in central Europe. The discovery of milk lipids in late sixth millennium ceramic sieves in Poland may reflect an isolated regional peculiarity for cheese making or may signify more generalized milk exploitation in north-central Europe during the Early Neolithic. To investigate these issues, we analysed the mortality profiles based on age-at-death analysis of cattle tooth eruption, wear and replacement from 19 archaeological sites of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) culture (sixth to fifth millennium BC). The results indicate that cattle husbandry was similar across time and space in the LBK culture with a degree of specialization for meat exploitation in some areas. Statistical comparison with reference age-at-death profiles indicate that mixed husbandry (milk and meat) was practised, with mature animals being kept. The analysis provides a unique insight into LBK cattle husbandry and how it evolved in later cultures in central and western Europe. It also opens a new perspective on how and why the Neolithic way of life developed through continental Europe and how dairy products became a part of the human diet.

    -----------

    Aus der nature: Earliest expansion of animal husbandry beyond the Mediterranean zone in the sixth millennium BC
    https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-07427-x
    Abstract:
    Since their domestication in the Mediterranean zone of Southwest Asia in the eighth millennium BC, sheep, goats, pigs and cattle have been remarkably successful in colonizing a broad variety of environments. The initial steps in this process can be traced back to the dispersal of farming groups into the interior of the Balkans in the early sixth millennium BC, who were the first to introduce Mediterranean livestock beyond its natural climatic range. Here, we combine analysis of biomolecular and isotopic compositions of lipids preserved in prehistoric pottery with faunal analyses of taxonomic composition from the earliest farming sites in southeast Europe to reconstruct this pivotal event in the early history of animal husbandry. We observe a marked divergence between the (sub)Mediterranean and temperate regions of Southeast Europe, and in particular a significant increase of dairying in the biochemical record coupled with a shift to cattle and wild fauna at most sites north of the Balkan mountain range. The findings strongly suggest that dairying was crucial for the expansion of the earliest farming system beyond its native bioclimatic zone.

    -----------

    Aus der PlosOne: High-resolution isotopic evidence of specialised cattle herding in the European Neolithic
    High-resolution isotopic evidence of specialised cattle herding in the European Neolithic
    Abstract:
    Reconstructing stock herding strategies and land use is key to comprehending past human social organization and economy. We present laser-ablation strontium and carbon isotope data from 25 cattle (Bos taurus) to reconstruct mobility and infer herding management at the Swiss lakeside settlement of Arbon Bleiche 3, occupied for only 15 years (3384–3370 BC). Our results reveal three distinct isotopic patterns that likely reflect different herding strategies: 1) localized cattle herding, 2) seasonal movement, and 3) herding away from the site year-round. Different strategies of herding are not uniformly represented in various areas of the settlement, which indicates specialist modes of cattle management. The pressure on local fodder capacities and the need for alternative herding regimes must have involved diverse access to grazing resources. Consequently, the increasing importance of cattle in the local landscape was likely to have contributed to the progress of socio-economic differentiation in early agricultural societies in Europe.
     
  12. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Einen umfangreichen Aufsatz zur Entwicklung der Fleisch- und Milchwirtschaft in der Viehhaltung der Linearbandkeramiker - in der Entfaltung vom Donauraum bis an die westeuropäischen Küsten - enthält die PRSL. Der Aufsatz ist im freien download erhältlich und gibt einen guten Überblick über den Stand der Kenntnisse zu den ausgewerteten Standorten, verbindet das aber mit der übergreifenden Betrachtung zur sich ausbreitenden Viehwirtschaft,.

    Cattle husbandry in Linearbandkeramik | Proceedings of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences

    Abstract:
    Cattle dominate archaeozoological assemblages from the north-central Europe between the sixth and fifth millennium BC and are frequently considered as exclusively used for their meat. Dairy products may have played a greater role than previously believed. Selective pressure on the lactase persistence mutation has been modelled to have begun between 6000 and 4000 years ago in central Europe. The discovery of milk lipids in late sixth millennium ceramic sieves in Poland may reflect an isolated regional peculiarity for cheese making or may signify more generalized milk exploitation in north-central Europe during the Early Neolithic. To investigate these issues, we analysed the mortality profiles based on age-at-death analysis of cattle tooth eruption, wear and replacement from 19 archaeological sites of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK) culture (sixth to fifth millennium BC). The results indicate that cattle husbandry was similar across time and space in the LBK culture with a degree of specialization for meat exploitation in some areas. Statistical comparison with reference age-at-death profiles indicate that mixed husbandry (milk and meat) was practised, with mature animals being kept. The analysis provides a unique insight into LBK cattle husbandry and how it evolved in later cultures in central and western Europe. It also opens a new perspective on how and why the Neolithic way of life developed through continental Europe and how dairy products became a part of the human diet.
     
  13. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Eine neue Studie in Nature bestätigt die These, dass die Ausbreitung der Landwirtschaft zu Beginn des Neolithikums in Europa weiträumig als "demic diffusion" ("Landnahme", demografische Ausbreitung) zu sehen ist, weniger als Kulturtransport (cultural diffusion). Das soll bis auf einige (wenige) Ausnahmen so gewesen sein. Grundlage waren die derzeit verfügbaren DNA-Auswertungen des Früh-Neolithikums.

    Artikel:
    The ancient cline of haplogroup K implies that the Neolithic transition in Europe was mainly demic

    Our findings agree with genome-wide results, in the sense that demic diffusion was the main driver of the Neolithic spread in Europe (see, e.g. the results by Mathieson et al.). However, genome-wide studies cannot estimate the percentage of farmers involved in cultural diffusion (see our Introduction). In contrast, our methodology yields the first quantitative estimation for this percentage (about 2%).
    ...
    Ancient DNA data indicate that cultural diffusion was more important in some specific regions, such as Scandinavia or the Paris Basin.
    Thus, it has been recently suggested that the effect of cultural diffusion increased as farmers migrated farther west in Europe.
    This suggestion agrees nicely with:
    (i) our simulated clines (lines in Fig. 3);
    (ii) the observed cline of haplogroup K (symbols in Fig. 3); and
    (iii) the intuitive expectation that longer distances from the spatial origin of the Neolithic imply more time for interbreeding and/or acculturation and, therefore, a stronger e ect of cultural diffusion.
     
  14. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

    58331079-4D2D-4DA9-9809-F9B593D2EE7B.jpeg Und daran anknüpfend eine weitere Studie zur Ausbreitung der Acker- und Viehwirtschaft anhand der Untersuchung einer Insellage im Vergleich zum Festland, wieder mit dem Fokus auf einer cultural diffusion, weniger einer Migration iS einer demic diffusion. Und verfeinert dann die Vorstellungen von dieser kulturellen Verbreitung.

    Abstract:
    The zooarchaeological research presented here investigates Neolithic and Chalcolithic (ca. 6500–5000 cal. BC) animal exploitation strategies at Uğurlu Höyük on the Turkish island of Gökçeada in the northeastern Aegean Sea. Toward this end, we first discuss the results of our analysis of the zooarchaeological assemblages from Uğurlu Höyük and then consider the data within a wider regional explanatory framework using a diachronic approach, comparing them with those from western and northwestern Anatolian sites. The first settlers of Gökçeada were farmers who introduced domestic sheep, goats, cattle and pigs to the island as early as 6500 years BC. Our results align well with recently published zooarchaeological data on the westward spread of domestic animals across Turkey and the Neolithization of southeast Europe. Using an island site as a case study, we independently confirm that the dispersal of early farming was a polynucleated and multidirectional phenomenon that did not sweep across the land, replace everything on its way, and deliver the same “Neolithic package” everywhere. Instead, this complex process generated a diversity of human-animal interactions. Thus, studying the dispersal of early farmers from southwest Asia into southeast Europe via Anatolia requires a rigorous methodological approach to develop a fine-resolution picture of the variability seen in human adaptations and dispersals within complex and rapidly changing environmental and cultural settings. For this, the whole spectrum of human-animal interactions must be fully documented for each sub-region of southwest Asia and the circum-Mediterranean.

    Artikel in der PLOSone, wie immer open access:

    Spread of domestic animals across Neolithic western Anatolia: New zooarchaeological evidence from Uğurlu Höyük, the island of Gökçeada, Turkey


     
  15. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

  16. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Eine heute veröffentlichte, neue genetische Studie von David Reich &Co. zieht den Schluss, dass es regional jahrhundertelange Koexistenzen von älteren Jäger-/Sammler-Populationen und schnell in Europa vordringenden neolitischen Farmern gegeben hat. Eine Durchmischung der Populationen hat offenbar nur sehr langsam stattgefunden.

    Aus der Nature:

    Parallel palaeogenomic transects reveal complex genetic history of early European farmers

    Frei verfügbare early edition auf biorxiv:
    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2017/03/06/114488

    Presse:
    https://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2017-11/mpif-nfc110917.php
     
    Zuletzt bearbeitet: 9. November 2017

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