Genomics of Mesolithic Scandinavia reveal colonization routes and high-latitude adaptation | bioRxiv Dabei geht es auch um Anpassungen an Lebensbedingungen in größeren Höhen. Überraschenderweise sind zwei Kolonisationsrouten des wieder eisfrei werdenden Skandinaviens nach dem glazialen Maximum sichtbar: eine Südroute, und eine über den Nordosten (was bereits eine dortige Population logischerweise voraussetzt). Beide Populationen haben sich "getroffen" und - wenig überraschend - vermischt. :friends: Abstract: Scandinavia was one of the last geographic areas in Europe to become habitable for humans after the last glaciation. However, the origin(s) of the first colonizers and their migration routes remain unclear. We sequenced the genomes, up to 57x coverage, of seven hunter-gatherers excavated across Scandinavia and dated to 9,500-6,000 years before present. Surprisingly, among the Scandinavian Mesolithic individuals, the genetic data display an east-west genetic gradient that opposes the pattern seen in other parts of Mesolithic Europe. This result suggests that Scandinavia was initially colonized following two different routes: one from the south, the other from the northeast. The latter followed the ice-free Norwegian north Atlantic coast, along which novel and advanced pressure-blade stone-tool techniques may have spread. These two groups met and mixed in Scandinavia, creating a genetically diverse population, which shows patterns of genetic adaptation to high latitude environments. These adaptations include high frequencies of low pigmentation variants and a gene-region associated with physical performance, which shows strong continuity into modern-day northern Europeans.