Schußwaffen,Kanonen der Ming Dynastie

Dieses Thema im Forum "Indien | Ferner Osten" wurde erstellt von Ming_Loyalist, 8. November 2007.

  1. Ming_Loyalist

    Ming_Loyalist Neues Mitglied

    Kanonen auf der chinesischen Mauer
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    Mienen in China während der Ming Dynastie

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    Brandbomben,40 KG schwer, benutzt für die stadtverteidigung,hergestellt in der späten Ming Dynastie

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    Kanonen in der Ming Dynastie

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    Schwere Feldkanone, 1,6 Tonne schwer, Schießentfernung:1,9 km

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    Ming Soldaten mit Maschinen, die Feuerpfeile abschießen können

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    Chinesiche Schußwaffe mit 3 Schießröhre in der Ming Dynastie

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    Eine Art der Granaten der Ming Armee, erfunden von dem chinesischen Handwerker Li Changsun während des Imjin-Krieges

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    Muskete der Ming-Dynastie

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    Haubitze der chinesischen Version in der Ming-Dynastie


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    [FONT=&quot]E[/FONT][FONT=&quot]inzellader Muskete.90.000 Exemplare wurden in der Ming Dynastie hergestellt.Sie wurden viel eingesetzt in der Verteidigung Pekings gegen die Mongolen im 1449.[/FONT]



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    "Großgeneral" Kanone,die auf der Stadtmauer stationert werden kann


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    Mehrlader Pistole der Ming Armee


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    Kanone mit mehreren Röhre

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    Revolver.Erfunden von dem berühmten Ming General Qi Jiguang ,Schießweite:180 m



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  2. Ming_Loyalist

    Ming_Loyalist Neues Mitglied

    Eine frühe Version des Mörsers.Weit verbreitet in der Armee des Generals Qi Jiguang
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    Muskete mit drei Stütze ,3 m lang ,12 KG schwer.Schießweit:200m


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    Fligerbombe

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    Ming Soldat,der mit einem dreiröhrige Musket schießt

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    Flammenwerfer



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    mehrröhrige Feuerpfeilekanone


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    Wassermiene



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    Handgranate

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    Die Manchus eroberten China mit Pfeilen und Säbel auf Pferd, sie vernachlässigten die Entwicklung der Schußwaffen der Ming Chinesen


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    Eine Kanone aus der Manchus Qing Zeit.Die Qing Armee baute den Ming Kanonen nach, aber die Qualität der Kanone ist im Gegensatz zu der Ming Kanone sehr schlecht


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    Im späten Qing Dynastie,waren die herrschenden Manchus von den vielen Niederlagen Qing Chinas gegen die Europäer gezwungen,die Kanonen des Westens nachzubauen.


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    Zuletzt bearbeitet: 8. November 2007
  3. Ming_Loyalist

    Ming_Loyalist Neues Mitglied

    Zuletzt bearbeitet: 8. November 2007
  4. Kraft

    Kraft Neues Mitglied

    :yes:

    Tolle Bilder! Wirklich hoch interessant!
    Was mir jetzt so auffällt, das lustigerweise zu 80% (grob geschätzt) die Europäer ähnliches eingesetzt haben.
    Gab es da Beziehungen (außer physikalischen grundprinizpien)?

    Hast du zufällig Literatur über die Ausrüstung chinesischer Soldaten (am besten erst einmal einen groben Überblick, über die verschiedenen perioden)?
     
  5. Ming_Loyalist

    Ming_Loyalist Neues Mitglied

    Die Bilder sind ziemlich realistisch.Die Bilder der Krieger sind anhand zahlreicher archäologischer Funde restauriert worden.




    Westliche Zhou-Dynastie(im 11. Jahrhundert v. Chr. bis 771 v. Chr.)



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    Zeit der Streitenden Reiche(zwischen 475 v. Chr. und 221 v. Chr.)






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    Qin-Dynastie (221 v. Chr. - 206 v. Chr.)



    Qin Offizier

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    Qin Bogenschützer

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    Qin Armbrustschützer

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    Normaler Qin Infanterist

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    schwerer Qin Kavallerist

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    Qin Rüstung und Helm:

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    Han Dynastie (206 v. Chr. bis 220 n. Chr.)



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    Han Infanterist

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    Han Kavallerist

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    Han Kavallerie offizier



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    Wei-Dynastie(220265) und Jin-Dynastie (265–420)

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    Südliche und Nördliche Dynastien(den Zeitraum von 420 bis 581.)

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    schwerer Kavallerist in den Südliche und Nördliche Dynastien



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  6. Ming_Loyalist

    Ming_Loyalist Neues Mitglied

    Rüstung in den Südliche und Nördliche Dynastien

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    Infanterist in den Südliche und Nördliche Dynastien

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    Schwerer Infanterist in den Südliche und Nördliche Dynastien



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    Sui-Dynastie (581-618)

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    Schwerer Sui Infanterist

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    Tang Dynastie (von 618 bis 907)



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    Tang General

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    Tang Kavallerist



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    Tang Kavallerie General



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    Tang General mit einem Löwenkopf

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    Tang General

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    Früherer Tang General

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    Tang Offizier

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    Tang Rüstungen:

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    Fünf Dynastien und Zehn Königreiche (907-960)



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    Kavallerist in den Fünf Dynastien und Zehn Königreiche

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    Song-Dynastie(960 bis 1279)

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    Song Infanterist

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    Schwerer Song Infanterist



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    Schwerer Song Kavallerist

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    Song Infanterist



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    Yuan Mongolenherrschaft (1279-1368)



    Mongolischer Soldat

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    Yuan Soldaten

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    Yuan Bogenschützer

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    Yuan Bogenschützer auf Pferd

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    Ming Dynastie





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    Ming Kavallerist mit einem Muskete(1368 bis 1644)

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    Ming Musketier

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    Früher Ming General

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    Ming Rüstung:

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    Rüstung und Helm von Kaiser Wanli von Ming Reich

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    Qing Manchus Herrschaft(16361912)

    Manchus Rüstung

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    Manchus Qing Soldat

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    Zuletzt bearbeitet: 8. November 2007
  7. Ming_Loyalist

    Ming_Loyalist Neues Mitglied

    In Wikipedia gibt es einen englischen Text über die Geschichte der chinesischen Rüstung.



    Ancient armour: Shang (商)- Han(汉)

    Armour was exclusively for noblemen, the earliest armour used by the Shang dynasty (商) was made from turtles shells tied together with cords. Later bronze and leather was introduced, and simple one piece breastplate and lamellar cuirass begin to appear. Most of these were highly elaborate and decorated, and were often very heavy. The majority of noblemen fought mounted on war chariot, so weight of the armour wasn’t a major factor in its construction.
    After the defeat of the Shang, the Zhou (周) used many weapons and types of equipment that originally came from the Shang. However, the Zhou incorporated some of their own different or unique styles of armour. One type was the ge jia (革甲), a sleeveless coat of animal hide formed on a wooden dummy. The hide used was of buffalo and rhinoceros. Buffalo was more often used later on, because of the disappearance of the rhinoceros in the region. Another armour used by the Zhou was the wei jia, a boiled leather on a fabric backing. Red lacquer was often used to form a protective layer for most armour used by the Zhou.

    Chariots were used extensively during the Spring and Autumn Period (春秋). The chariots were mainly used as a shock weapon and a platform for archers; but the chariot was restricted to flat terrain and when used against well organized infantry, it was often defeated. Shang chariots were often drawn by two horses, the Zhou later introduced a four horse chariot. The crew of the chariot was made up of noblemen, all would have worn armour.
    Zhou chariots were protected by leather, and sometimes came with a canopy to protect the crew from the weather, but this was probably removed before going into battle. Chariot horses were protected by a blanker made of animal skins -- most popular was tiger skin, and sometime would have worn lamellar peytral made of leather to protecte the horses' chest and neck. Chariot use declined during the Warring States Period (战国时期), probably because of the introduction of the crossbow and cavalry.
    Most of the Warring States maintained large armies, numbering anywhere from 30,000 to 100,000. With such a large number of men, it became prohibitive to give all of them armor. Armour was most common for elite soldiers. During the Warring States Era, most armour was made of leather or bronze, or a combination of both. The metal that was used most for military purposes was bronze. Wrought iron began to appear in the 5th century BC, but didn’t begin to replace bronze until the 2nd century BC.
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    A diagram of the Chinese mountain-scale armor type.


    Most infantrymen wore lamellar cuirass. The lamellar cuirass worn by these men was made of hundreds of small overlapped metal and/or leather plates laced together to make a flexible and light protection. Shoulder guards and helmets were often used, but leather caps seem to have been more common.
    Armour for cavalry was rare during this time, most cavalry units served in the role of skirmisher, so armour wasn’t necessary. Heavy cavalry tended to have lighter armour than the infantry, usually constructed entirely of leather and without shoulder protection.
    Most evidences for armour development during this period comes from the Terracotta Warriors of Qin Shi Huang (秦始皇). Some terracotta warriors wore no armour; it is suggested that these were skirmishers or support troops for the chariots, they are usually placed at the front of the formations. Of the terracotta warriors thus uncovered, Pit 1 shows approximately 61 percent of the soldiers wearing armour, Pit 2 over 90 percent, and pit 3, being in a command compound, 100 percent.
    Traces of black paint on these figures suggest that Qin may have used black lacquer for their armour. Many different styles of armour was found, but examples of these armours from ancient China are rare. Qin Shi Huang ordered weapons, and probably armour too, to be destroyed by fire. This is likely the reason that so few examples of ancient armour exist today.
    With the fall of Qin in 207BC came the rise of the Han dynasty in 202BC. By the time of the Han, the primary metal used was iron. Early Han soldiers would have used armour and weapons captured from the Qin. The Western Han army numbered possibly in the hundreds of thousands, so armours were standardized to meet the need. One of the armours used by the Han was the liang-tang, or "double-faced" armour, a lamellar cuirass made of leather, that was worn over the shoulders with cords. This armour was used by both the infantry and the cavalry. A much heavier and expensive version, consisting of iron plates laced together, was worn by officers. During the Eastern Han Dynasty, a new style of armour was adopted, a scale corselet made of leather.
    Shields were used by both infantry and cavalry. These shields were usually made of wood and often reinforced by a metal center and rim.
    Armour for horses began to appear around the end of the Han dynasty, but the earliest armour yet found dates back to the year 302 AD. Full armour for cavalry appeared during the 4th century AD. During the Three Kingdoms Period (三国), fully armoured cavalry were extensively used for shock. Early horse armour came in one piece, but later armour came in multiple pieces: chanfron (head protector), neck, chest, and shoulder guards, flank pieces and crupper. Most cavalry served as mounted archers, and sometimes removed their arm protection to used their bows or crossbows.
    Medieval armour


    The pinnacle of ancient Chinese armor development is perhaps the Shan Wen Kai or "Mountain Pattern Armor". It began to appear during the Tang Dynasty and was further perfected during the Ming dynasty. It is made from a multitude of small pieces of steel that are vaguely shaped like the Chinese character for the word shan (Mountain). This would thus explain its name. The pieces are then interlocked and riveted to a cloth or leather backing. It effectively covers the torso, the shoulders and the thighs while remaining comfortable and flexible enough to allow movement.

    [edit] Late Chinese Armour

    By the 19th century, most armour was worn mainly for ceremonial purposes and was an indicator of rank. The kind of armour that was largely used was the brigandine, a type of armour consisting of a leather or cloth garment lined with metal plates inside. Sometimes, the plates were made in different sizes and shapes to maximize protection. The Chinese brigandine comes in five pieces: the vest, pauldrons, skirting, underarm, and groin section. By contrast, the Korean version of this armour is a single piece. Brigandines were first seen in China and Korea in the 12th century AD and were used up to the 19th century. Armour use began to decline after the introduction of firearms, but shields continued to be used. Most Chinese soldiers of the times went without armour of any kind and mostly wore civilian clothing.
    Addendum

    There are two common Chinese translation for the word armor. More may exist but Jia and Kai (in pinyin form) are the most encountered. If one looks at the traditional Chinese characters for both of these words, it may be observed that the character for the word metal appears in the one for Kai. The same cannot be said about the one for Jia thus implying that these armors are made from materials other than metals.












    Im Internet gibt es auch viele chinesischen Webseiten,die ausführlicher über chinesische Rüstungen beschreiben.Sie sind alle auf Chinesisch.Wegen vielen Fachwörtern ist es mir leider nicht möglich, sie ins Deutsche zu übersetzen.
     
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  8. hyokkose

    hyokkose Gast


    Vielen Dank für Deine Bemühungen um reichhaltige Information. Ich möchte dennoch darauf hinweisen, daß das Kopieren sehr langer Texte, die man genausogut verlinken könnte, bei uns nicht üblich ist:

    http://www.geschichtsforum.de/230717-post11.html
     
  9. Kraft

    Kraft Neues Mitglied

    Ist zwar ein bisschen spät, aber danke für die Mühe und die Infos!
     

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