Türkische Namensreform 1934 und Folgen

Dieses Thema im Forum "Das Osmanische Reich" wurde erstellt von lynxxx, 10. August 2010.

  1. lynxxx

    lynxxx Neues Mitglied

    Hi,

    es wurden einige Fragen hier gestellt:
    http://www.geschichtsforum.de/f42/t...ch-ihre-sprecher-34260/index3.html#post514176
    Und ich möchte einige davon vielleicht beleuchten.

    (Zu Anfang ein Link zu den wenigen Aussprache-Tipps der türkischen Buchstaben. Alle Laute gibt es auch im Deutschem, zudem bleiben die Laute immer gleich, egal welcher Buchstabe nebeneinander steht. Also nicht wie im Deutschem, wo das S mal scharf, mal weich ausgesprochen wird - solche Kompliziertheiten gibt es nicht im Türkischem. Niemand braucht sich die Zunge verrenken... ;) (<-ein wenig vereinfacht, für die Korinthenka..er ;))
    http://www.geschichtsforum.de/f42/einf-hrung-die-geschichte-des-osmanischen-reiches-20740/ )

    Informationen zu den kemalistischen Reformen allgemein, darunter auch kurze Infos zu dieser Namensreform und dem geschichtlichen Kontext findet man hier im Forum:
    http://www.geschichtsforum.de/f75/atat-rks-reformen-und-davon-heute-brig-ist-32758/
    und
    http://www.geschichtsforum.de/f75/mustafa-kemal-atat-rk-32116/#post283794

    Bei dieser Nachnamens-Reform am 21. Juni 1934 mussten sich alle Bewohner der Türkei einen Nachnamen zulegen.

    Bislang war es so, dass im Prinzip alle Osmanen besonders auf dem Lande nur einen Namen hatten. Es gab aber zahlreiche Ausnahmen, entweder inoffiziell (z.B. Murat der Schwarze) oder offiziell (z.B. Ahmed 'Aşık-Paşazâde).

    Im Prinzip kamen die Zunamen oder die angehängten Wörter - zwecks besserer Unterscheidbarkeit bei Vornamensgleichheit - aus den gleichen Quellen, wie sie auch im Abendland schöpften:

    "Im Laufe der Jahrhunderte entwickelten sich die Familiennamen aus fünf Bildungsformen:
    • patronymisch, das heißt aus Rufnamen,
    • nach der Wohnstätte,
    • nach dem Beruf,
    • nach der Herkunft und
    • aus so genannten Übernamen, die den Träger verschiedentlich charakterisierten. "
    Bedeutung der Familiennamen - verwandt.de

    Wer also schon mehr oder minder einen weiteren religiösen, sozialen, familiären, örtlichen und/oder beruflichen Zunamen besaß, z.B. hohe Beamte, konnte diesen ggf. fortführen. Alle anderen mussten einen weiteren Namen hinzufügen.

    Dieser konnte im Prinzip frei gewählt werden, musste jedoch in dem türkischen Wörterbuch vorkommen.

    Das heißt, z.B. Kurden mussten somit offiziell einen türkischen Nachnamen annehmen. Diese Vorgehensweise war durch den türkischen Staat auch beabsichtigt, wollte es doch eine Homogenisierung des Staatsvolkes und besonders die Assimilation der Kurden vorantreiben.
    Es gab jedoch einige Ausnahmen, so das wir trotzdem Dutzende (oder so; möchte nicht quantifizieren) kurdische (und arabische, lazische, usw.) Nachnamen auch nach der Namensreform 1934 vorfinden. Weitere Infos siehe unten in den ausführlicheren Zitaten.

    Namenswahl:

    Die Bewohner konnten sich also entweder
    • einen schon geläufigen Namen beim Einwohnermeldeamt nennen
    • sich frei einen ausdenken; solange er im türk. Wörterbuch vorkam
    • weiterhin gab es Listen, wo Einwohnermeldeamts-Beamte Namensvorschläge erdachten, die den Zeitgeist Europas spiegelten. So kommt es, dass heute einige Namen gehäuft vorkommen, weil eben damals viele Türken diese Namen attraktiv empfanden (oder sich vereinzelt von den Beamten überreden ließen, wenn sie sich partout nicht entscheiden konnten).
    Z.B. fanden viele Einwohnermeldeamts-Beamte diese Namen besonders toll für ihre Bürger:
    • Aktürk = heller Türke
    • Baştürk = Führer/Chef/Kopf der Türken
    • Türkoğlu = Sohn des Türken
    • Öztürk = echter Türke/reiner Türke/Ur-Türke
    • Ertürk = heldenhafter Türke
    • Büyüktürk = großer Türker
    usw.
    • zuletzt müsste es vielleicht auch sowas gegeben haben, dass z.B. nicht jeder Bürger persönlich zum Amt ging, sondern z.B. der Dorfvorsteher stellvertretend hinging um seine Dorfbewohner mit den ihm bekannten Namen und Zunamen (also Murat der Lahme, usw.) zu registrieren. Denn ansonsten kann ich mir nicht erklären, dass auch solch unschmeichelhafte Nachnamen existieren, wie Canavar = Monster, Deli = Verrückt, Meme = Busen, usw. :rofl:(Vielleicht hatte der Dorfvorsteher mit einigen ja noch ein Hühnchen zu rupfen?... :D)
    "...Die meisten der türkischen Familiennamen fallen dadurch auf, dass sie leicht verständlich, sprachlich durchsichtig sind. Das hängt mit ihrem geringen Alter zusammen: Erst im Jahr 1934 erließ die noch junge türkische Republik ein Gesetz, das jeden Türken dazu verpflichtete, außer seinem Vornamen einen festen Familiennamen zu tragen. Der größte Teil der türkischen Familiennamen ist aus dem allgemeinen Wortschatz gebildet, und zwar mit Vorliebe aus Wörtern, die ein mannhaftes Wesen und kriegerische Tugenden ausdrücken oder symbolisieren ..."
    http://www.duden.de/deutsche_sprache/sprachberatung/newsletter/archiv.php?id=62

    • Ateş= Feuer, Eifer
    • Çelik= Stahl
    • Çetin= hart
    • Coşkun= feurig, lebhaft
    • Demir= Eisen
    • Erol= sei ein Mann

    Gerne griff Mann auch auf historische oder mythologische Helden zurück:
    • Arslan = Alp Arslan (Sultan der Groß-Seldschuken )
    • Cengiz = Dschingis Khan
    • Dede = Dede Korkut (Die Figur des türkischen Erzählzyklus Dede Korkut)
    • Yıldırım = Beiname von Sultan Bayezid I.
    Poetische Bezeichnungen wurden ebenfalls gern als Familiennamen genommen:
    • Ay = Mond
    • Aydın = licht, hell
    • Ceylan = Gazelle
    • Çiçek = Blume
    • Gül = Rose
    • Güneş = Sonne
    Einige weitere Nachnamen und ihre Bedeutung:

    • Akça = weißlich, sehr weiß
    • Bostancı = abgeleitet von bostan:
      1. Gemüsegarten
      2. Honigmelonen- und Wassermelonenfeld
      3. bostancı: jemand, der sich mit dem bostan beschäftigt (Gemüsegärtner, Melonen- oder Gurkenzüchter, aber auch Angehöriger der Leibwache des Sultans)
    • Bulut = Wolke
    • Demirci = Schmied (unser Schmidt ;))
    • Duman = Nebel, Rauch
    • Emir = Befehl, Auftrag oder durch andere Schreibweise (Emîr: ) Fürst
    • Erdoğan: türkischer Familienname abgeleitet von Doğan = Falke; Erdoğan = männlicher Falke; türkische volkstümliche Übersetzung = als Mann geboren, von Geburt Mann
    • Esen = gesund, wohlbehalten
    • Keser = türkisch „keser“ = kommt vom Inf. kesmek = schneiden, Keser = Breit-, Querbeil, Krummhaue
    • oğlu: ist ein öfters vorkommender Bestandteil eines Nachnamens und bedeutet: "Sohn des". Ähnlich der Silbe "-sen, -son, ..." im Deutschem. Z.B. Selimoğlu = Sohn des Selim.
    • ÖZ: unter den Bestandteilen moderner türkischer Namen - Vornamen, wie Familiennamen - steht die Silbe „öz“ an erster Stelle; sie bedeutet „Mark, selbst, ganz echt“ und kann praktisch mit jedem Substantiv oder Adjektiv verbunden werden (z.B. „Öztürk“ und „Özkan“)
      „Öz“ bedeutet:
      1. selbst, ich
      2. Kern, Wesen, Substanz
      3. echt rein
    • Şen = fröhlich, heiter, lustig; mehrfach wird „şen“ (fröhlich) als Bindungselement verwendet, wie in „şener“ = froher Mann
    • Üstgül: eine Komposition aus den türkischen Wörtern „üst“ und „gül“ („üst“ = ober-, -e , hoch, höchste; gül“ = Rose)
    • Yılmaz = unerschrocken, furchtlos, unbeugsam; einer der häufigsten türkischen Familiennamen; ursprünglich ist „Yılmaz“ ein türkischer Vorname
    z.T. aus:
    Ausländische Familiennamen

    Wer die Verbreitung eines Namens in der Türkei betrachten möchte, also solche oder ähnliche Fragen wie rena8 hat, der kann sich mal auf dem Ableger der deutschen verwandt.de-Seite in der Türkei umschauen (Ich glaube eine Registrierung ist notwendig):
    Ücretsiz online soy a?ac? / akrabaonline.com'da soy ara?t?rmas?

    Nun kommen wir nach den eher allgemeinen und eher oberflächlichen Betrachtungen mal zu einigen Zitaten aus seriösen Büchern:

    Interessant ist z.B., dass ein Name bzw. ein Zuname auch im Laufe der (osmanischen) Zeit Veränderungen unterliegen kann. Anhand des Beispieles von Mustafa Kemal aka Kemal Atatürk:

    It should be remembered, however, that family names were only made compulsory in Turkey in 1934 and that until then they were the exception rather than the rule. Before 1934 people were known by their birth name or by the name they were given at an early age (for instance on entering school). They would often also have a surname denoting a special quality of the person involved or of his family. In addition, many of the leading figures held a title (Bey or Pasha in the case of bureaucrats and officers or Efendi in the case of ulema). To take an example, the first president of the Republic of Turkey was given the name Mustafa at birth and Kemal in primary school. [weil es mehrere Mustafas in seiner Klasse gab] To his fellow students he would be known as Kemal or Selânikli Kemal (Kemal from Salonica). From his graduation from the military academy until 1916 he was addressed as Kemal Bey, but when he was promoted to the rank of brigadier he
    became Kemal Pasha. After his victory in the War of Independence the surname Gazi (conquering hero) was often used. From 1934 onwards, he was officially known as Kemal Atatürk (‘Father Turk’)."

    Dann geht der Autor noch darauf ein, dass auf viele (entlegene) Dörfer, all die Reformen Atatürk weniger Einfluss gehabt haben dürften:

    "He [der Dörfler] had to take a family name in 1934, but the whole village would continue to use first names (as is still the case) and the family names remained for official use only."
    aus: Erik Zürcher: Turkey – A Modern History. 2004.
     
    Zuletzt bearbeitet: 10. August 2010
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  2. lynxxx

    lynxxx Neues Mitglied

    Hier habe ich mal eine Stelle in der Lit. gefunden, die etwas genauer auf das Prozedere der Namensvergabe eingeht, auf Probleme dabei, und darauf, welche Gruppen schon vor der Namensreform eine Art Nachnamen besaßen.:

    "Before the adoption of official “Turkish” surnames some years after the declaration of the Turkish Republic, patronyms of the type described were very common in the coastal districts that had comprised the old province of Trabzon, all the way from Batum to Ordu. Probably most men (but not any women) identified themselves with a patronym that signified their membership in a patronymic group. The prevalence of patronyms as well as the salience of patronymic groups was a regional peculiarity. In other parts of rural Turkey, groups of agnatically related males often designated themselves by a nickname, but they did not consistently take the form of a patronym. Correspondingly, the nick-names for descent groups, so common elsewhere in rural Turkey, did not have their counterparts in most of the eastern coastal districts of the old province of Trabzon. This was an odd contrast that had never received any attention but that seemed significant, given my interest in local variation and diversity. I began to consider the patronymic group as a local social formation more or less distinctive of the eastern Black Sea coast without any exact equivalent in other parts of the country. There was other evidence that this might be the case."

    "The Name Law of 1934 required every citizen to adopt an official surname. It was at this time that the man who had been Mustafa Kemal became Kemal Atatürk. Similarly, all the citizens in the district of Of [in der Provinz Trabzon] also chose new surnames. At this point the correction of a common misunderstanding is required.
    It has been observed that “the Turks, like most other Muslim peoples, were not in the habit of using family names.” Surnames were indeed exceptional, although not unknown, in many parts of the country. However, there were appellations that resembled surnames in the rural areas of much of Anatolia. It was commonly the case that a collection of agnatically related households in a village might designate themselves by a collective name. So household or family groupings sometimes chose surnames that were derived from these lineage or tribal names. But they more typically chose a new surname from lists of officially approved surnames, since the lineage or tribal appellations were not always understood to refer to a familyline.
    Otherwise, it is not at all accurate to say that the Turks were not in the habit of using what could be regarded as surnames. Everywhere in the districts of Anatolia, from the seventeenth century forward, if not earlier, there were individuals who were designated by reference to the name of their family line. This was especially the case in the eastern coastal districts, where names of family lines were a matter of paramount significance. As I have already pointed out in chapter 1, the names of family lines, whether in the “oğlu” or the “zade” form, were used, both officially and nonofficially, to refer to the principal figures of the old state society. Unlike the lineage or tribal names elsewhere in rural Anatolia, these patronymics did not mark a person as a country bumpkin. Instead, they confirmed standing and position in the imperial system; hence, many individuals were loath to surrender them.
    Consequently, the old patronymics commonly, although not invariably, became the basis for the new surnames, simply by eliding the suffix. In the district of Of, for example, Selimoğlu became Selim, Muradoğlu became Murad, while Tellioğlu became Öztel, Bektaşoğlu became Bektaş, Şisikoğlu became Şişik, and Abdikoğlu became Abdik.
    The application of the Name Law of 1934 is therefore of utmost interest as an indicator of the transition from the old republic to the new republic.
    As the deadline for selecting surnames approached (January1, 1935), there were disagreements, even heated quarrels, among the members of some large family groupings. As we have already seen, these conglomerations of hundreds of households were comprised of a variety of sets (takımlar), and each set was the potential basis for a faction. The members of different sets were sometimes tempted to formalize these latent cleavages, designating themselves by distinctive surnames. Concerned that such disputes might actually lead to civil disorders, the district officer is said to have taken steps to insure that the members of large family groupings all agreed to adopt the same surname. In one instance, it is recalled, he went to the length of summoning all the elders (büyükler) of the Tellioğlu, a large family grouping in the vicinity of the sub-district center. They had been quarreling about the adoption of a surname, and the sets were on the brink of splitting into different groupings. The district officer told the elders they were the most numerous family in the area and should stay together. He then informed them that he would himself choose their new surname by preserving in some way their old family name. There upon he dubbed them with the new surname “Öztel.” So in this instance, a district officer, who is recalled as an ardent Kemalist, arranged for the continuation of the legacy of aghas and agha-families. He had done so as a practical measure of preserving the working relationship of the new state system with the old state society. He was a revolutionary in principle, but a conservative in practice.
    However, in still another instance, a leading individual from a large family grouping specifically chose to disassociate himself from his agnatic relatives. After January1, 1935, Mehmet Selimoğlu became Mehmet Sayın, designating himself by a surname that does not seem to have been adopted by any other member of his patronymic group. The name he chose was a neologism, a “New Turkish” creation of the language reform that meant “esteemed” or “respected.” At the same time, most of the other members of the family line had adopted the official surname of “Selim,” thereby retaining a semantic hold on their old name, hence also a hold on its eminence.
    Mehmet Sayın had chosen a surname that at the same time asserted his attachment to the program of reforms and his detachment from the other members of his family line. And whatever his intention, his new surname could not help but suggest that the old name he had explicitly refused was disrespected in that his new name was respected. So by the choice of his surname, Mehmet Sayın appears to have been a radical Kemalist; however, he was pushed by circumstance to become conservative in practice, even if he was a revolutionary in principle.
    After Mehmet Sayın assumed the mayoralty, he began to accumulate other public offices as well. He became the chairman of the Turkish Air Association (Türk Hava Kurumu), chairman of the Red Crescent Society (Kızılay Cemiyeti), chairman of the Children’s Protection Society (Çocuk Esirgeme), chairman of the Of People’s House (Of Halkevi), and chairman of the RPP. He was also director of the Ferry Boat Agency (Deniz Yolları Acenteliği) and caretaker (mütevelli) for the endowment (vakıf) of the town mosque.
    As my interlocutors remarked, “Little Mehmet was the government.” In this regard, he had succeeded in fully “replacing” Ferhat Agha, who might also have been described in such terms. But if he was similar to his imperial predecessor, he was also different. He had begun as an outsider to his family line. He had disassociated himself from his agnates by choosing a unique surname, and he risen to prominence under the auspices of the one-party regime.
    Although I have relatively good information about his accumulation of public offices, I have very little information about his motives...."

    Offensichtlich hat dieser Bürgermeister später seinen Nachnamen wieder geändert:

    "It is at this point that Mehmet Bey made a belated move to become a leading individual from a large family grouping. He assumed a new name.
    Formerly known as Mehmet Bey Sayın, he now became known as Mehmet Bey Selimoğlu.
    He was far from being the first or the only person of his family line to make an adjustment in his surname. On the contrary, he was among the last. For some years, the members of large family groupings in the coastal region had been reverting back to the original form of their old patronymics, even with the addition of the suffix “oğlu” (occasionally even using “zade”). In a few instances, large family groupings that had actually split their surnames, despite the counsel of state officials, reunited as they reverted to the old patronymic. The prospect of free and direct elections of the representatives of the National Assembly had given a new meaning to the old vertical and horizontal solidarities. The old republic was acquiring a new purpose and becoming a political force in the new republic."
    aus dem Buch:
    Michael E. Meeker: A Nation of Empire – The Ottoman Legacy of Turkish Modernity. Berkeley, Los Angeles u. London: University of California Press 2002.

    In anderen Teilen der Republik wurde hingegen nicht versucht die vorigen patrilinearen Namen oder Clan-Namen weiter zu verwenden, weil viele sie als rückständig empfanden.

    Aha, in einem anderen Buch, steht, dass solche Zunamen, wie deli = verrückt, usw. keinen pejorativen Beigeschmack hätten:

    "The memory of these men, the root ancestors, their descendants, and their respective lâgap (=nickname) was preserved from generation to generation by the men; women, who stand in a different relation to genealogies, did not show any interest in them until I began to question them on the subject. Because in Turkey no official surnames existed before 1932, except those of some families of nobility, and the usual Islamic first names gave only a small choice, many Ahmets, Alis, Mehmets, Isas, and so forth existed in every clan. Boys and young people with the same name were distinguished by their fathers’ names. They acquired nicknames in addition to their given names as soon as their personalities or their development of distinctive qualities as adults began to stand out. In many cases the nicknames of ancestors were transmitted over generations, during which time they became simply names without pejorative characteristics. Nobody believed that a whole lineage was, for example, “quarrelsome” or “rovers.” Neither were the names taken as attributes of their founders, who might have been given nicknames in youth as, for instance, “crazy” for a fiery youngster, hardly reflective of one in old age."
    aus diesem Buch:
    Network Analysis and Ethnographic Problems - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    welches hier kostenlos teilweise downloadbar ist:
    Network Analysis and Ethnographic Problems - InterSciWiki

    Ist also einerseits so "einfach", wie im ersten Posting oben beschrieben wurde, andererseits, schaut man genauer, wird es eben doch je nach Provinz, je nach sozialer Schicht, ein bisschen komplexer und vielfältiger. Wie meistens... ;)

    Schaut bitte weiter im Buch der letzteren Links nach, sollten darin noch mehr Informationen stecken. Ich bekomme schon quadratische Augen... ;)
     
    Zuletzt bearbeitet: 10. August 2010
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