Archäologische Nachweise und Quellen der präherodischen Zeit erlauben kaum, über top-down und bottom-up Prozesse des Synkretismus eindeutige Aussagen zu treffen: wer, wie, wann, mit welchem Ergebnis an solchen Prozessen beteiligt war. Cambridge HoJ II, schreibt dazu [vereinfachend die Zitate]: "Antiochus IV Epiphanes was anxious to encourage a tendency towards unity of worship in order to give a common outward form to the local deities, and it was this desire which made him place the Temple under the dedication of Zeus Olympius. In fact the Temple was not arranged as a Greek sanctuary, but as a Syrian one to the heavenly deity Baal Samem who, like Zeus Olympius, seemed to be more or less identical with the God of the Jews. If however this tendency towards syncretism aroused resistance from the Jews in Jerusalem, in Shechem on the other hand it was forestalled by the Samaritans. According to Jewish tradition, they proposed on their own account to place their sanctuary on Mount Gerizim under the dedication of Zeus Xenios. The schismatic Samaritans on the return from Exile had not been allowed to take part in the reconstruction of the Temple of Jerusalem on account of their mixed origins — or else they had refused to take part in it." (S. 24) und im Ergebnis: "It is also shown by the fact that two Jews in Ptolemaic times set up two inscriptions in the temple of Pan at Redesieh in Apollinopolis Magna (Edfu) in Upper Egypt, in which they thanked God ..., one of them for deliverance from peril at sea. It is quite possible that the fanatical Dionysus worshipper, Ptolemy IV Philopator, after his victory at Raphia, tried through pressure and promises to persuade Jews of the upper classes in Egypt to be initiated into the mysteries of Dionysus, for he himself regarded their god as a kind of Semitic Dionysus. Some decades later radical Jewish reformers, working hand in hand with Antiochus IV and gentile military colonists, tried to transform the worship of Yahweh on Mount Zion into a cult of Zeus Olympius or Baal Shamem, since, for the outsider, it was basically a matter of just the same God of heaven. Jews in the Diaspora as well as in the homeland, however, resisted this attempt in an overwhelming majority. The legend in 3 Maccabees attests, 'But the greater part stood firm with a noble courage and departed not from their religion.' There is no real evidence of a Jewish—pagan syncretism in Egypt in pre-Roman Hellenistic times. The emergence of a 'Jewish gnosis', which is widely discussed today, was ... only possible in the Roman period after the time of Philo. There is no evidence for it in Ptolemaic times. Actual fusion between Jews and pagans occurred only in the field of magic and astrology, in which Egyptians, Jews and Greeks became increasingly interested from the second century B.C.E., and by which all classes of the population were affected." (S. 205/206) Was sich nicht nachvollziehen lässt, läßt sich auch nicht abschließend verstehen. Natürlich kann man darüber Theorien entwickeln.