Dieses Thema im Forum "Zeitalter der Entdeckungen (15. - 18. Jhd.)" wurde erstellt von fingalo, 27. März 2005.

  1. El Quijote

    El Quijote Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Dass diese These richtig ist, kann ich mir nur schwer vorstellen, schon weil Meeresschildkröten weite Strecken unter Wasser verbringen, ihre Verfolgung auf dem Meer ist ohne Peilsender kaum möglich.
  2. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Ergänzend Neues:


    Lipo et. al., Weapons of war? Rapa Nui mata'a morphometric analyses


    "... Heyerdahl 1989 argued that the island suffered grave conflict between Polynesians and Native South Americans, subsequent researchers have suggested that the paradox presented by the moai and the island’s historic landscape is the consequence of an environmental catastrophe (Bahn & Flenley 1992; Flenley & Bahn 2003). This account has been popularised as the ‘collapse’ scenario (Diamond 1995, 2005).

    New research challenges this scenario, with empirical evidence that demonstrates Rapanui people flourished on the island until AD 1722 when Europeans arrived (e.g. Rainbird 2002; Lipo & Hunt 2009; Hunt & Lipo 2011; Mulrooney 2012). Contrary to assumptions about large past population sizes, Rapa Nui’s settlement patterns show that the inhabitants lived in dispersed and low-density communities (Hunt & Lipo 2011; Morrison 2012). We have also learned that prehistoric people used lithic mulch to boost the island’s nutrient-poor soil to support sustained cultivation (e.g. Stevenson et al. 2002; Bork et al. 2004). Finally, we now know that the loss of the palm forest had little if anything to do with statue transport or a decline in carrying capacity (Hunt & Lipo 2011; Lipo et al. 2013).

    One persistent ‘collapse’ claim is that prehistoric Rapa Nui populations engaged in intense warfare when resources became scarce (Bahn & Flenley 1992; Diamond 1995, 2005; Flenley & Bahn 2003). Yet the island lacks evidence of systematic warfare. ..."
  3. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter


    Neues von Rapa Nui, zur "Ecocide"-These, zum Verdacht über Ratten als wesentlicher Nahrungsbestandteil, etc. ...

    Aufsatz, derzeit im freien download,

    Diet of the prehistoric population of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) shows environmental adaptation and resilience - Jarman - 2017 - American Journal of Physical Anthropology - Wiley Online Library.

    "Our results of carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of individual amino acids show that in our samples, seafood made up about half of the protein in human diets, which is considerably higher than previous estimates based on bulk data with similar isotopic compositions. Our estimates are consistent across four independent modelling approaches. Additionally, we show that rats are unlikely to have made up a significant source of human dietary protein. These results may demonstrate a more balanced subsistence strategy, which is less likely to have placed unnecessary strain on natural terrestrial resources. Furthermore, the more accurate estimation of marine input in human and faunal diets allows for improved MRE corrections of 14 C dates. On Rapa Nui, the dating of the initial colonization of the island has been subject to extensive debate (Hunt & Lipo, 2006), and a detailed chronology is essential to understanding the impact of human settlement on the environment. The 14 C dates from human and faunal remains have typically been considered less reliable due to MREs (Lipo & Hunt, 2016) despite their potential as more direct evidence for human occupation.

    Significantly, our nitrogen isotopic results also suggest cultivation of agricultural crops in lithic mulch gardens and manavai, as documented in the archaeological record, was the source of the high d 15 N values observed in prehistoric human remains. This is further supported by our analysis of ancient and modern soils from both agricultural and nonculti-vated contexts. We do not know if biogeochemical conditions in these agricultural plots favored denitrification or ammonia volatilization, or if manuring through bird waste produced the high cultivated plant d15N dens required considerable effort in transporting the stones required to construct and maintain manavai and mulched areas (Ayala-Bradford et al., 2005; Bork, Mieth, & Tschochner, 2004), attesting to the effort invested in cultivating terrestrial resources. Burning of the native forest would have temporarily increased soil fertility on Rapa Nui, but over time the soils would have lost fertility (Hunt & Lipo, 2011). Our results point to concerted efforts to manipulate agricultural soils, and suggest the prehistoric Rapa Nui population had extensive knowledge of how to overcome poor soil fertility, improve environmental conditions, and create a sustainable food supply. These activities demonstrate considerable adaptation and resilience to environmental challenges - a finding that is inconsistent with an “ecocide” narrative."

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