Dieses Thema im Forum "Zeitalter der Entdeckungen (15. - 18. Jhd.)" wurde erstellt von fingalo, 27. März 2005.

  1. El Quijote

    El Quijote Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Dass diese These richtig ist, kann ich mir nur schwer vorstellen, schon weil Meeresschildkröten weite Strecken unter Wasser verbringen, ihre Verfolgung auf dem Meer ist ohne Peilsender kaum möglich.
  2. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Ergänzend Neues:


    Lipo et. al., Weapons of war? Rapa Nui mata'a morphometric analyses


    "... Heyerdahl 1989 argued that the island suffered grave conflict between Polynesians and Native South Americans, subsequent researchers have suggested that the paradox presented by the moai and the island’s historic landscape is the consequence of an environmental catastrophe (Bahn & Flenley 1992; Flenley & Bahn 2003). This account has been popularised as the ‘collapse’ scenario (Diamond 1995, 2005).

    New research challenges this scenario, with empirical evidence that demonstrates Rapanui people flourished on the island until AD 1722 when Europeans arrived (e.g. Rainbird 2002; Lipo & Hunt 2009; Hunt & Lipo 2011; Mulrooney 2012). Contrary to assumptions about large past population sizes, Rapa Nui’s settlement patterns show that the inhabitants lived in dispersed and low-density communities (Hunt & Lipo 2011; Morrison 2012). We have also learned that prehistoric people used lithic mulch to boost the island’s nutrient-poor soil to support sustained cultivation (e.g. Stevenson et al. 2002; Bork et al. 2004). Finally, we now know that the loss of the palm forest had little if anything to do with statue transport or a decline in carrying capacity (Hunt & Lipo 2011; Lipo et al. 2013).

    One persistent ‘collapse’ claim is that prehistoric Rapa Nui populations engaged in intense warfare when resources became scarce (Bahn & Flenley 1992; Diamond 1995, 2005; Flenley & Bahn 2003). Yet the island lacks evidence of systematic warfare. ..."
  3. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter


    Neues von Rapa Nui, zur "Ecocide"-These, zum Verdacht über Ratten als wesentlicher Nahrungsbestandteil, etc. ...

    Aufsatz, derzeit im freien download,

    Diet of the prehistoric population of Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile) shows environmental adaptation and resilience - Jarman - 2017 - American Journal of Physical Anthropology - Wiley Online Library.

    "Our results of carbon and nitrogen isotopic analysis of individual amino acids show that in our samples, seafood made up about half of the protein in human diets, which is considerably higher than previous estimates based on bulk data with similar isotopic compositions. Our estimates are consistent across four independent modelling approaches. Additionally, we show that rats are unlikely to have made up a significant source of human dietary protein. These results may demonstrate a more balanced subsistence strategy, which is less likely to have placed unnecessary strain on natural terrestrial resources. Furthermore, the more accurate estimation of marine input in human and faunal diets allows for improved MRE corrections of 14 C dates. On Rapa Nui, the dating of the initial colonization of the island has been subject to extensive debate (Hunt & Lipo, 2006), and a detailed chronology is essential to understanding the impact of human settlement on the environment. The 14 C dates from human and faunal remains have typically been considered less reliable due to MREs (Lipo & Hunt, 2016) despite their potential as more direct evidence for human occupation.

    Significantly, our nitrogen isotopic results also suggest cultivation of agricultural crops in lithic mulch gardens and manavai, as documented in the archaeological record, was the source of the high d 15 N values observed in prehistoric human remains. This is further supported by our analysis of ancient and modern soils from both agricultural and nonculti-vated contexts. We do not know if biogeochemical conditions in these agricultural plots favored denitrification or ammonia volatilization, or if manuring through bird waste produced the high cultivated plant d15N dens required considerable effort in transporting the stones required to construct and maintain manavai and mulched areas (Ayala-Bradford et al., 2005; Bork, Mieth, & Tschochner, 2004), attesting to the effort invested in cultivating terrestrial resources. Burning of the native forest would have temporarily increased soil fertility on Rapa Nui, but over time the soils would have lost fertility (Hunt & Lipo, 2011). Our results point to concerted efforts to manipulate agricultural soils, and suggest the prehistoric Rapa Nui population had extensive knowledge of how to overcome poor soil fertility, improve environmental conditions, and create a sustainable food supply. These activities demonstrate considerable adaptation and resilience to environmental challenges - a finding that is inconsistent with an “ecocide” narrative."
  4. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Weiteres neues Material zu Rapa Nui:

    1. ein Kurzbeitrag zur "Cost Signaling Theory" in Bezug auf die Monumente.
    Uni Birmingham
    Resource Scarcity and Monumental Architecture: Cost Signaling on Rapa Nui (Easter Island), Chile

    (Allgemein: scinexx | Wozu Rituale? : Die Theorie der teuren Signale )

    2. und im oben verlinkten Beitrag wird auf eine hydrogeologische Studie zu den Süßwasserressourcen verwiesen, die als Masterarbeit 2016 online verfügbar gestellt worden ist:

    Submarine groundwater discharge as a freshwater resource for the ancient inhabitants of Rapa Nui - ProQuest
  5. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Eine weitere Publikation ist bereits im Juli erschienen, geht aber wohl jetzt erst durch die Presse.

    Freier download
    Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution:
    Rain, Sun, Soil, and Sweat: A Consideration of Population Limits on Rapa Nui (Easter Island) before European Contact

    Anhand verschiedener Modellvariablen zur Umwelt und Faktoren wie die Akkumulation von Nitrogenen wird versucht, den möglichen Umfang der versorgbaren Population abzuleiten. Demnach wird eine Bevölkerung von größer 17.500 für "möglich" gehalten.

    Solving the Easter Island population puzzle - HeritageDaily - Heritage & Archaeology News
  6. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Neue humangenetische Studie zu Rapanui, mit überraschenden Ergebnissen:

    eine ältere Studie hatte einen genetischen "Kontakt" zwischen der Osterinsel und Südamerika behauptet. Wenn es einen präkolumbischen Kontakt zum Südpazifik gab, der die Besiedlung beeinflusst hat, muss er naheliegend über Rapanui gelaufen sein.

    Die neue Studie ist die erste, die dieses ältere Ergebnis überprüft hat. Ergebnis: kein präeuropäischer Kontakt vor 1722, die humangenetischen Kontakte/Spuren mit Südamerika werden dagegen nach 1722 angenommen bzw. datiert.

    Paleogenomic analysis sheds light on Easter Island mysteries - HeritageDaily - Heritage & Archaeology News

    Genetic Ancestry of Rapanui before and after European Contact

    The origins and lifeways of the inhabitants of Rapa Nui (Easter Island), a remote island in the southeast Pacific Ocean, have been debated for generations. Archaeological evidence substantiates the widely accepted view that the island was first settled by people of Polynesian origin, as late as 1200 CE. What remains controversial, however, is the nature of events in the island’s population history prior to the first historic contact with Europeans in 1722 CE. Purported contact between Rapa Nui and South America is particularly contentious, and recent studies have reported genetic evidence for Native American admixture in present-day indige- nous inhabitants of Rapa Nui. Statistical modeling has suggested that this genetic contribu- tion might have occurred prior to European contact. Here we directly test the hypothesis that the Native American admixture of the current Rapa Nui population predates the arrival of Europeans with a paleogenomic analysis of five individual samples excavated from Ahu Nau Nau, Anakena, dating to pre- and post-European contact, respectively. Complete mitochondrial genomes and low-coverage autosomal genomes show that the analyzed individuals fall within the genetic diversity of present-day and ancient Polynesians, and we can reject the hypothesis that any of these individuals had substantial Native American ancestry. Our data thus suggest that the Native American ancestry in contemporary Easter Islanders was not present on the island prior to European contact and may thus be due to events in more recent history.
  7. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

  8. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

  9. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Der Aufsatz ist inzwischen über academia.edu frei verfügbar.
    Dort wird über das Wanderungsverhalten berichtet. Das Publikationsteam hält das für möglich, weil die Tiere tagsüber einen Meter Tiefe nicht überschreiten, und die Wanderungsrichtung nachts beibehalten, was navigatorisch für die "Verfolger" machbar sein, dabei generell langsamer als die Boote sind (Faktor o,5).
  10. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

  11. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

  12. silesia

    silesia Moderator Mitarbeiter

    Die Studien mit DiNapoli (siehe oben zur Frischwasser-Versorgung, publ. Jan 2019) als Autor gehen in die nächste Runde:

    Nunmehr wird anhand von umfangreichen Datierungsanalysen (konträr zur älteren Forschung) weiter die These erhärtet, der Kollaps der Bevölkerung/Kultur auf Rapa Nui sei nicht vor, sondern erst nach der Ankunft der Europäer erfolgt. (auch wohl übereinstimmend mit Berichten für die frühen europäischen Kontakte)

    We demonstrate that ahu construction began soon after colonization and increased rapidly, sometime between the early-14th and mid-15th centuries AD, with a steady rate of construction events that continued beyond European contact in 1722. Our results demonstrate a lack of evidence for a pre-contact ‘collapse’ and instead offer strong support for a new emerging model of resilient communities that continued their long-term traditions despite the impacts of European arrival.
    Artikel im preview:
    A model-based approach to the tempo of “collapse”: The case of Rapa Nui (Easter Island) - ScienceDirect

    Presse zB
    Researchers revise timing of Easter island's societal collapse
    schwedenmann und Divico gefällt das.

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