Hopliten

Dieses Thema im Forum "Antikes Griechenland" wurde erstellt von Quintus Fabius, 29. Juni 2004.

  1. Themistokles

    Themistokles Aktives Mitglied

    Ich habe gefunden, dass zumindest der Negrauer Helm eine Futterblech mit einer umlaufenden Reihe Löcher zur Befestigung eines Innenfutters.

    Am wahrscheinlichesten ist das gleiche (oder ein ähnliches ) Material wie bei den Beinschienen, die an Ober- und Unterrand auch Löcher besaßen.
    Die Angaben habe ich aus dem Bildwörterbuch der Kleidung und Rüstungen von Harry Kühnel
     
    Zuletzt bearbeitet: 31. Dezember 2004
  2. Tib. Gabinius

    Tib. Gabinius Neues Mitglied

    Na dann zitier ich auch mal fleißig:
    Aus Schutz und Zier, Antikenmuseum Basel + Sammlung Ludwig, S. 13: "Bei korinthischen und anderen griechischen Helmen wurde mit zahlreichen kleinen Nieten ein schmaler Streifen aus Metall oder Bein befestigt. Diese Randauflage erhielt bisweilen durch die breiten Zierköpfe der bronzenen oder silbernen Niete den Charakter einer kostbaren Borte. Darüber hinaus konnte die Nietreihe dazu dienen, ein Innenfutter aus Leder oder anderem organischen Material zu befestigen. Viele Helme waren jedoch nicht mit einem Futter ausgestattet. In diesem Fall trugen die Krieger unter dem Helm als Polster eine Mütze, wie wir sie von Vasenbildern kennen "
    Die Abbildungsverweise habe ich rauseditiert. Bekannt sind aber die Abbildungen des Patroklos, während er von Achill verbunden wird. Auf dieser Schale, ca. 500 v. Chr. im Antikenmuseum Berlin zu sehen, ist die Kappe klar zu erkennen.

    Wichtig ist der Verweis: Es könnte(!) mit den Nieten auch ein Futter befestigt werden. Bewiesen ist dies noch nicht.
     
  3. Sheik

    Sheik Neues Mitglied

    gut das ihr was habt, bei mir stand nämlich nix drin ;)
     
  4. Hänsel

    Hänsel Neues Mitglied

    Ich habe bei Xenophon "Anabasis " gelesen :...Cheirisophos selbst, bekränzt und ohne Obergewand, ergriff als erster die Waffen ....( 4. Buch, 3. Kapitel Absatz 17)

    Cheirisophos ist Spartaner und laut den Anmerkungen ( in der Reclam Ausgabe) zogen die Spartaner immer bekränzt in den Kampf....wenn dass stimmt trugen sie den Kranz über dem Helm, oder ist das Schwachsinn..???
     
  5. Tib. Gabinius

    Tib. Gabinius Neues Mitglied

    Wie schon mal erwähnt wurde die Ausrüstung erst kurz vor dem Kampf angelegt. Im Gegensatz zur Legion, bei der jeder Soldat seine komplette Ausrüstung am Mann trug halfen hier oft Sklaven, Diener oder Heloten die Ausrüstung zum Ort des Geschehens zu bringen.
    Die vielen Darstellungen deuten auch darauf hin, dass der Helm bis zum Beginn der Schlacht, also während der Aufstellung, so getragen wurde, das Gesicht und Ohren frei lagen (im Fall des Korninthers also "nach oben geklappt").
    Dementsprechend kann der Krieger also bekränzt losgezogen sein. Da so ein Kranz in der Sonne auch nicht lange hält wird er schon lange vor der Schlacht, wenn sie nicht in Spartas Umfeld geschah, entsorgt worden sein.
     
  6. Sheik

    Sheik Neues Mitglied

    Was man sich auch noch fragen muss, ist ob das ganze ein griechischer Brauch war, oder erst unter pers. Einfluss aufgetreten ist.
    Ich hab keine Anabasis hier atm und bin mit pers. Gebräuchen auch nicht so sattelfest, insofern isses nur ein Denkansatz.
     
  7. Hänsel

    Hänsel Neues Mitglied

    ja mir ist der brauch auch neu.....bisher wußte ich nur von den schon erwähnten purpurnen Umhängen, deswegen frage ich ja hier nach,.......
     
  8. Auch wenn ich wahrscheinlich gleich wieder eins drauf krieg von wegen Lange Texte usw, der folgende Text ist nicht mehr im Internet zu finden und da ja hier die Frage nach der Makedonischen Armee Phillips und Alexanders gestellt wurde:

    THE MACEDONIAN ARMY

    For much of Classical history Macedonia was a back-water territory on the fringes of the Greek world. During the Persian Wars the Macedonian cavalry were forced to fight on the Persian side, and were defeated by the Greek’s at the battle of Plataea in 479 B.C. Little is known about Macedonian history before the time of Philip II, except for the continuous wars with various tribal enemies that surrounded them. The Macedonians were originally a Doric people who, through many generations of isolation from Greek culture tended to identify more with their tribal neighbors rather than the Greeks to the south, whom they felt were snooty and pompous. These neighbors included Paeonians, Triballians, Thracians, and Illyrians, all of these were tough barbarian tribes, difficult to contain let alone subdue. But the more enlightened Macedonians understood that they must eventually be able to compete with the expanding Greeks, as they were the real ultimate threat. Various Kings attempted to "Hellenize" the Macedonians, but this was mostly rejected by the Macedonian people and more importantly, the army. Yet suddenly, incredibly, in the middle of the fourth century B.C. the Macedonians became rulers of Greece and immediately thereafter conquered the huge Persian Empire. All of this can be attributed to the innovations and actions of one man, Philip II, who became king of Macedon in 359 BCE. Almost single handedly he turned the "Backward" Macedonians into the most organized and efficient fighting force the world had yet seen. Only his son, Alexander the Great was able to eclipse Philip’s fame with even more amazing feats of conquest.

    This army forged by Philip and Alexander was centered around Philip’s own invention- the Macedonian Phalanx; a battle formation that was to dominate Mediterranean warfare for the next one hundred and fifty years. Armies that included Macedonian Phalanx's eventually dominated vast territories- from the fringes of India, throughout the former Persian Empire, Greece, and even Egypt formed armies based on serried ranks of pikemen. Finally one by one, the pike armies were eventually destroyed by the Roman Legions, which replaced the phalanx as the dominant fighting formation of ancient warfare.



    PHILIP II OF MACEDON

    In 359 BCE, Macedonia was thrown into disarray when their King (Perdiccas III) was killed in a battle with their old enemies the Triballians. Because Perdiccas’ son Amyntas was an infant, his brother Philip was made regent. Philip’s position was precarious indeed. Not only were there the usual tribal enemies surging on Macedon’s frontier borders, but the Greeks were once again trying to eat away at Macedonia’s weak frontiers. Athens was playing power politics in the Chersonese peninsula in an attempt to win back some of her empire and prestige lost in the Pelopponessian War. Almost directly to the south, the Thebans, by virtue of their great victories over Sparta by the military genius Epaminondas, were the "Hegemons" of Greece and at the peak of their military power.

    As if these threats were not bad enough, Philip had to deal with five other claimants to the throne. (It appears that usually the last contender standing would be rewarded with the Macedonian crown!). Philip’s energy and skills soon overpowered his rivals, and he quickly threw back the barbarians ravaging the countryside. The Macedonians were so impressed with this vigorous leadership that they acclaimed him King Philip II, dumping the young Amyntas.

    South of Macedon, the ancient city of Thebes had gained control of Greece by the sheer will and presence of one man. Epaminondas of Thebes was the greatest general to come from the era of the Greek city state. He had re-invented tactics and by brilliant maneuvers and stratagems defeated even the lofty Spartans- destroying not only Sparta’s era of invincibility, but causing irreplaceable losses to her manpower. However at his crowning moment Epaminondas was killed in battle- leading his Thebans in battle at Mantinea in 362 B.C. Without Epaminondas’ savvy leadership the Thebans were not able to hold onto their gains and almost immediately Greece began to fragment once more into city state squabbling. Philip knew Epaminondas well as he was a hostage to the Theban Oligarchy when he was fifteen. Being able to learn first hand the revolutionary tactics of the Thebans was very fortunate, not having to face a general of Epaminondas’ quality was probably the key factor that allowed Philip’s run of luck, guile, and brashness that eventually allowed him to conquer and become "Hegemon" of all Greece. Ultimately this prepared the way for Philip’s son Alexander, to become the west’s most famous conqueror.



    REFORMING THE ARMY

    Philip II inherited a polyglot army of Royal guardsmen, tribal levies and noble cavalrymen. He had already been reorganizing the army since his return from Thebes in 364 B.C. , but shortly after consolidating his reign, he could muster 600 Cavalry and 10,000 foot. The Macedonian cavalry were notably his best troops and were called Companions. Unlike the skirmishing cavalry favored by most Greek states, the Macedonian Companions preferred to fight as shock troops and wore armor, greaves, helmets, and carried a nine foot thrusting spear called a Xyston. The Agema Companions (Royal Guard), were the Kings own bodyguard and numbered 300. Philip recruited many of these from the lesser nobility obviously as a hedge to the other "nobles". Philip’s army in many ways reflected the politics of Macedonian society and he strove to consolidate his power by re-inventing his army.

    The Macedonian infantry force was another matter. Aside for the Hypaspists (shield bearers), the territorial levies of infantry originally were somewhat unreliable troops. For the most part it is known that they sometimes fought in Greek style phalanxes but were most comfortable and useful as peltasts and favored "hunting" style tactics and equipment . The Agema Hypaspists were more seasoned and reliable troops. These became Philip’s "Royal" bodyguards and they were constantly kept mustered, unlike the rest of the Macedonian foot troops. The new Macedonian King knew that his task of consolidating his position in Macedon would one day lead to conflict with Athens, Thebes, and even Sparta, thus he would need a force of infantry that could match the discipline and drill of the Hoplites that these City States could field. Philip set about to reorganize the drill and training of his army, this "momentous innovation" was unheard of at the time. He forced all of his army to learn complex tactical maneuvers, he ordered them to go on 35 mile marches with full packs and provisions, and he outlawed baggage carts that would slow down his army. The number of slaves and retainers was reduced to the bare minimum to keep this new army lean on the march. He delivered inspiring speeches to his weary and tired troops. All in all his efforts were similar to putting his whole army through boot camp!

    Philip, like the Romans later on, had a knack for copying things from others and then improving upon them and creating a revolutionary new style of warfare. As a hostage of Thebes he was exposed to the innovations of Epaminondas’ and grasped how the "oblique order" of Thebans tactics was the key factor in their defeats of Spartan Hoplite armies. (the historian and general Xenophon preferred to blame Spartan drunkenness on their disasters!). Not only did these "tactics" confound the foe but the Thebans also preferred to fight in phalanxes of much greater depth than the usual Greek battle line. This allowed the less fighting skilled, and trained Thebans to put enormous pressure on one spot of the enemy line, and in fact allowed them to break through even the Spartan Guards and then roll up the Spartan phalanx from the flank. This knowledge obviously had an impact upon him as he changed the Macedonian tactics to mirror this oblique order, only instead of leading from the left as the Thebans did, the Macedonians would punch from the right flank and drive a wedge into the enemy lines with their Companion cavalry. Not only did Philip copy Theban tactics, but he increased the depth of his infantry formations to give them added punch and moral stamina. Philip was also well versed with "Thessalian tactics" which was a well known ruse used by disciplined troops to feign flight and then turn upon a straggling pursuing force (the Spartans used this ruse famously at the battle of Thermopylae).

    The other innovation that completed this brilliant "New-Model" army was the lengthening of the infantryman’s spear to 12-15 foot length. This idea was copied from the famous Greek Mercenary General Iphicrates who had created a body of specialized troops of lightly armored, but well drilled pikemen that were trained to fight in a looser formation than traditional Hoplites. These "Iphicrataean" Hoplites were most famous for being involved in the destruction of a Spartan Mora (regiment) of 600 Hoplites at the battle of Coronaea in 300 B.C. The combination of these two changes in armament not only gave the Macedonian footmen a reach advantage over their spear armed Hoplite foes, but also greater depth in the Macedonian phalanx gave them the morale boost needed to stand up to and defeat the barbarian tribesmen currently threatening Macedon, and later the Greek Hoplites themselves. Because of Philip’s innovations the pike phalanx became a dominant style of warfare, one that would be copied and used by many ancient armies for the next two hundred years.



    Organization of the Macedonian Phalanx

    The Macedonian army Philip inherited seemed to be based on the common Doric and barbarian division by ten man files. Sometime during or shortly after Philip’s reign almost all units in his army were restructured on a more "Greek-like" 8 man file. Officers fought to the front and brought up the rear of each file. Eventually the base unit of the Pezhetairoi (foot Companions as they became known) evolved into the 256 man Syntagma formation that most ancient sources describe. A Syntagma was formed 16 ranks wide by 16 ranks deep for most situations. Two of these composed a 512 man Lochos. By Alexander’s time three Lochoi would form a Taxeis or battalion of nominally 1536 men and officers. The Taxi was led by a "Taxiarch" and some of these became Alexander’s best known officers.

    Besides re-arming and re-structuring the infantry force, Philip’s insisted on drilling his troops to a degree unheard of in Greece (except maybe in Sparta). This was most effective for him since in 356 B.C. he had secured the gold mines of Mount Pangaeus which gave him a huge revenue of 1000 talents per year which allowed him to keep his army on constant operations. Except in Sparta where their warrior society was slowly attempting to rebuild their numbers of diminished Spartiates, the Greek armies were at best militia forces brought together for a campaign then disbanded in winter to tend their crops and businesses. The Greeks abhorred the expense of training their troops, and keeping them in the field for year long operations was rare, one reason why Greek sieges were usually failures. Philip changed this forever by paying his troops. He could keep them mustered and the trained cadre of his formations were always under arms to indoctrinate the new recruits. Although not the first professional army in history, the Macedonians again would prove that trained, highly drilled veterans would prove to be more than a match for their unprepared foes.

    It appears that the pike armed, 16 man deep formation was quite maneuverable when compared with the Greek Phalanx. The self contained Syntagmas were able to face to the rear, or face to any flank reasonably quickly by counter marching. In emergencies the phalanx could about face, but this is undesirable as it would leave the officers at the rear. Phalangites gripped their Sarissas (pikes) in two hands and raised them when marching or maneuvering. Because of this they carried a smaller shield than the Greek Hoplite’s Hoplon. This shield was bronze faced but didnt have the broad rim that could rest on the shoulder, instead it had straps that slung it over their backs and around their necks. The Pezhetairoi would carry their shield on their backs when not in use but could swing them around quickly when close to action.

    The Phalangite wore a helmet, most commonly of the Thracian style popular at the time, the two foot bronze faced shield, and the Sarissa. The front rankers possibly wore heavy armor, either composite style Hoplite cuirasses, or Muscle cuirasses of bronze. Other ranks may have been unarmored as Arrian many times relates that Alexander took "the lightest armed of the Phalanx" on many of his fast marches. After being repulsed at the Persian Gates, Alexander threatened to only replace the Phalangites lost armor with half-corselets covering only the front- so they would be less likely to turn their backs next time! Many would have worn bronze greaves on their legs, although most wouldn’t be able to afford the form fitted kind, but cheaper models secured by straps. Much of the armor was made of iron, and some armor was silvered. When the army received new armor in preparation for the invasion of India the old cuirasses were burned, implying they were composite linen panoplies. It is speculated that the Phalangites wore red tunics. Helmets were often painted blue, red or silvered. Sometimes designs or wreaths were painted on. Stars bursts and crescents seemed to be the favored shield designs of infantrymen. It is very possible that helmets displayed battalion colors.

    The Phalanx’s tactics were based on it’s weapons and formation. The men formed up with a spacing of one yard per man. Up to three and maybe four ranks of spear points could stick out through the front of the unit which was usually the 16 x 16 man Syntagma. The back ranks would hold their pikes at a forty five degree angle which helped deflect arrows and also gave the formation an imposing height on the battlefield. Since six Syntagma were arrayed in line, a 1536 man Taxei would cover a front of a little over 100 yards. In some circumstances the phalanx would close up to 8 ranks deep and halve each man’s space. This "locked shields’ formation made the phalanx ponderous to move but almost impossible to close with frontally. However this formation could only move forward and was unable to quickly react to flank threats.
     
  9. Philip and Alexander’s Phalangites marched onto the battlefield in complete silence with pikes held upright. Once closer to the enemy the Pikemen would swing their shield into place with a loud clang. The Phalanx would finally level their pikes and then charge, yelling their war cry to Ares, ‘Alalalalai!" This sudden outburst of noise after a silent advance must have been unsettling to all but the most steady troops.

    Even so this formidable mass of men with a seemingly impenetrable wall of Sarissas was actually a defensive force and not expected to deliver the decisive stroke in a Macedonian victory. Although the phalanx could be arrayed in depths up to 16 men deep, it’s strength was in it’s wall of spears creating a long barrier that pinned the enemy in place. This wall of pikes could cover the deployment of reserves or create a base from which the Macedonian cavalry could spring out into gaps that the enemy would create when trying to reach around to the flanks of the Macedonian line. Cavalry were unable to close with a well ordered phalanx from the front at all, and rarely even attempted to hit it’s flank or rear even when such opportunities were presented. The phalanx was accustomed to light troops moving in and out through its files to screen it from enemy skirmishers, or seek the protection behind the pike units.

    Later descriptions of the phalanx give it the capacity to form into many shapes based on current threats. Thus the Phalanx could form a hedgehog for all around defense against cavalry, or it could open lanes and allow chariots to drive harmlessly through. Wedges could be formed , or crescents, in effect the phalanx was drilled to be able to execute these measures quickly and with a minimum of confusion. For a period of 30 years during Alexander’s and Philip’s campaigns, the Macedonian phalangites and Hypaspists became the most drilled and seasoned infantry the world had yet seen. Later generations of Phalanx’s retained the same armament and tactics but declined in quality of drill and experience becoming more ponderous and inflexible, especially in the hands of generals who miss-interpreted the lessons of Alexander’s victories.

    The Phalanx was always susceptible to disorder on hilly or broken ground and especially so in "locked shield" formation. It is not clear whether the phalanx pushed their foes like a rugby scrum, or used their spears to pin the enemy front ranks while others behind attempted to pierce at the enemy unprotected faces and underarms. Polybius’ description of the opening of the battle of Pydna in 168 B.C. tells us how an allied Roman contingent of Peligni was overthrown by a phalanx, sticking their spears into their shields and pushing them back. But we’ll save this for later.

    The Hypaspists

    Unfortunately the armament of the Hypaspists (shield-bearers) is not well documented. However we are given plenty of descriptions of their role in the Macedonian army. They are, to say the least, some of the most flexible troops in any ancient army. They could form up in a phalanx with armor and pikes, or carry thrusting spears and javelins and skirmish with equal skills. They were constantly involved in raids or forced marches to pursue the enemy or grab key objectives. Philip taught the Hypaspists how to maneuver with their pikes as his adopted brother Iphicrates had taught his peltasts. The Hypapsists were capable of retiring in the face of an enemy then reforming and charging over eager pursuers. In Alexander’s great battles the Hypaspist regiments would form on the right flank of the phalanx, there superior maneuverability allowed them to keep closer to his decisive Companion Strikes into the guts of the enemy line.

    The Three regiments of Hypaspists consisted of a thousand men each. The Premier Regiment or Agema (Guards) was composed the most seasoned veterans in the Macedonian army. Although lesser nobles sons that couldn’t afford horses would become Guardsmen, the regiments were kept up to strength by transfers from the phalanx. Later on in Alexander’s campaigns some the Hypaspists were given silver shields and armor which then caused them to be called the Argyaspids. These troops became as famous in antiquity as Caesar’s Tenth legion, or as Napoleon’s Old Guard is to us now.



    The Macedonian Cavalry

    The new Macedonian army was from the very first a "combined arms force". Unlike the Greeks who relied on their Hoplite Infantry almost totally, the Macedonians, up to the time of Philip, had always relied on the irresistible charge of their noble cavalry to carry the day. But Philip knew that cavalry alone could make little headway against the Hoplite shield wall. His efforts to create a solid infantry phalanx made his Companion cavalry even more effective, as he learned to use the phalanx as a screen for his horsemen or as a solid wall to pivot around and find the enemy flanks, or find gaps in their battleline that they could quickly dash through. The small squadrons of 200-300 horsemen in highly maneuverable wedges could quickly face in any direction an either exploit enemy weaknesses and flanks, or scurry back to the protection of the infantry if things got tight. There are many descriptions of the Macedonian wedges "breaking up" formations of much larger (and more heavily armored) enemies time and time again.

    The main thing that set Macedonian cavalry apart from all their contemporary foes was their desire to close in hand to hand combat. During this period most cavalry forces had given up bows but many still used javelins as their main weapon and closed with hand axes or swords for the brief and uncomfortable "melees". The Companions used the nine foot long Xyston made of stout cornel wood. Aside from the point the back end had a useful butt spike that was used when the spear shattered during the initial clash. Macedonian cavalrymen weren’t shy about using their Kopis (cutting swords) when their spears were rendered useless. A weapon which is vividly described as being able to cleave through a shoulder and lop off an arm clean.

    When Philip inherited Thessaly during the "Sacred War" he also gained access to Thessalian cavalrymen who were the best horsemen in Greece. They were similarly armed as the Companions but they also seemed to use javelins equally. They preferred the Rhombus over the wedge as it was perfectly suited for their "Thessalian" tactics of fire turn in place and retire. Just like a wedge the Rhombus had an officer on each apex, when the formation right/left or about faced then all they had to do was follow the officer who now led the whole squadron.

    Besides these "Heavies", the Macedonian army relied on numerous units of light cavalry as scouts, skirmishers, and battle cavalry. The most famous units of these were the Prodomoi (scouts) and Sarissaphaori (Lancers). The scouts regiments were crack units of Paeonian and other horsemen usually led by Macedonian Officers. Their role was to cover the deployment of the army, chase off enemy scouts, and find the enemy. In most of Alexander’s battles they fight in the opening stages of the battle to delay, harass with javelins, and break up the enemy charges. In the pursuit of defeated foes they were swift and relentless.

    The Sarissaphaori squadrons were similar to the scouts, however they became known as the "Lancers" because they were armed with pikes. This unusual armament is unique to Alexander’s army, and, although described as effective overthrowing foes many times their number, no later army seems to have used this type of troop again. After this period it did become common for heavy cavalry to adopt the longer spear which became known as the Kontos which is just another name for a cavalry pike. It is interesting that Alexander is depicted using a sarissa on horseback also, although this isn’t described in the written histories. It is possible that the lancers were Alexander’s "pet" regiment and thus he favored being depicted as one in paintings or on statues—much like later Cavalrymen would like to adopt the garb of the dashing Hussars. For some time these Lancers were thought to have been recruited from Thrace, where other Lancer cavalry originated, but they could also have been composed of Macedonians as well, or even mixed. The Macedonian army was a very diversified force, it’s hard to fathom with so many different languages and troop types the army could have cooperated at all!

    The other Cavalry units in the army were composed of Thracian, Odrysian, and even some Illyrian horsemen. These were mostly skirmishing types armed with javelins, but many of them could stand up to a hand to hand fight on occasions. Alexander had some Greek light cavalry, and one unit of Greek heavy cavalry supplied to him for the Persian invasion. The rest of the cavalry were mercenaries, either light or heavy.

    One part of the Macedonian army is often overlooked, these were the Royal pages and Grooms that formed ad hoc regiments on the battlefield. Similar to the role of Squires, these young men’s duties were to serve the Royal camp, and to learn the ways of becoming a Macedonian officer or guardsman. On the battlefield they hung back behind the lines and provided re-mounts for the heavy cavalry. On one occasion the pages rounded up and destroyed enemy chariots that had broken through the battleline., but normally they rounded up stragglers, delivered messages, and probably guarded prisoners.

    The large and maneuverable Macedonian cavalry force was the perfect complement to the massive but slower moving phalanx. When Philip began his wars of conquest in 359 B.C. he started with 600 cavalry out of a total of 10,000 troops, by 331 B.C. at Gaugamela, Alexander was able to field about 7500 horsemen, which was almost exactly 25% of his total force, a massive amount of cavalry by Greek army standards.



    Peltasts and Archers and other Mercenaries

    The unusual thing about the rise of the Macedonian army was that all aspects of the army were reorganised at once, especially the missile support and light infantry. In the past, new tactics or new ways of equipping troops came sporadically and focused on one type of troop in an army at a time. Iphicrates was able to fight tradition and create a new peltast style of fighting that became more popular in Greece- but this was going against the grain of Greek tradition. His new style troops defeated the Spartans in a running fight and the "Iphicratean" mercenaries became sought out and employed as mercenaries, especially in Persia. Epaminondas showed that cavalry and light troops had a role in pitched battles even against the most disciplined Hoplites. Further in the past there were anecdotal instances where light forces had beaten heavy troops all on their own. During the Peloponnesian War, Athenian light infantry had forced Spartan Hoplites to surrender at Spacteria island. The disasterous Athenian rout at the hands of Aetolian skirmishers in 426 B.C. further showed that heavy troops needed to have plenty of skirmishers and missile troops of their own to keep these Psiloi at bay, especially in rugged terrain where phalanxes had difficulty.

    Philip, absorbed all these lessons of military history (unlike most ancient generals) and began to create through alliances and hiring mercenaries a strong light infantry screen and missile support for his heavy troops. He at once gained close ties with Crete and hired their archers, who were the best in Greece. They used a composite bow and fired a broad bladed arrow. Cretans are noted as wearing red tunics. They also carried shields, unusual for archers, and were noted for their ability to go hand to hand with enemy light troops---something that must have been rare for other archers. Cretans were also noted for being into everybody else’s business. Philip created a mercenary archer regiment which became known as the "Macedonian archers". But Macedon isnt famous for it’s archery heritage, so these fellows were probably recruited from other provinces.

    The close proximity to Thrace meant that Macedon was constantly at war with them. Many Thracians also fought on the Macedonian side as allies or mercenaries. In earlier days the Thracian carried small semi-circular or round wicker shields called Peltas, hence their name. Greek light skirmishers without shields were driven off by the showers of javelins from these Peltasts and a number of Hoplite armies suffered from the inability to close with them in hand to hand. Peltasts had become a standard troop type in all Greek armies by the time of Philip. Many Thracian Peltasts carried an unusual weapon called a Rhomphaia which was a sickle shaped blade attached to a pole, apparently there was a longer and heavier version which was wielded in two hands and was as effective as an axe. The Thracians in the Macedonian army wore helmets and now carried a larger oval shield called a Thureos, some of them still wore their long decorated cloaks as seen on Classical Greek vase art, but most now wore regular tunics for practical day to day mercenary work.

    The most important light infantry contigent in the Macedonian army were the Agrianians. Alexander had a small body of these- usually less than a thousand strong but their effectiveness far exceeded their numbers. They were related to the Paeonians but were hillmen rather than horsemen. Noted for their fierce hand to hand charges and their accurate javelin fire these troops were the first line, screening the "heavies" from harassing enemy skirmishers, chariots and other threats. The Agrianians are described as having tatooed bodies like the Celts, and they also dyed their beards blue. They carried swords, a thureos shield, and a bundle of cornel wood javelins. Some Agrianians also served as slingers.

    Throughout Alexander’s campaigns he constantly created "task forces’ for lightning raids, and the Agrianians were always picked to join the guardsmen and the cavalry on these missions. The Agrianians stuck close to the Companions and would infiltrate into their melees and pull the enemy horsemen from their mounts.

    Solid infantry combined with numerous elite cavalry made the Macedonian army a formidible foe, but the addition of crack units of light infantry made this army the first ever to have a true combined arms force. This made the Macedonians the most flexible army up to that time, and in the hands of extremely capable generals like Philip, Alexander, Antipater, and Antigonus almost unbeateable.
     
  10. Princeps

    Princeps Neues Mitglied

    Zur Handhabung der Lanzen / Sarissen und der Dichte / Tiefe verschiedener Phalangen fand ich diese Site hilfreich:
    http://www.geocities.com/Athens/Oracle/6622/enemies-of-rome.html
    Da wird auf Schulter- und Hüfthaltung eingegangen, auf die Handstellung, die Deckungswirkung des Schilds, die Dichte des Lanzenwalls und seine Tiefe, sowie die Chance von Gegnern, hindurchzukommen.
     
  11. Themistokles

    Themistokles Aktives Mitglied

    Hier wurde ab und zu schon mal Iphikrates und Ephialtes erwähnt und ein wenig habe ich über ihre Reformen im Internet gefunden. Jetzt darf ich aber in Geschichte eine Hausarbeit über die Entwicklung der Kriegsführung in Antike und Mittelater schreiben und suche etwas umfangreichere Informationen zu ihren Veränderungen des griechischen Heerwesens.
     
  12. Hier im Forum wurde schon mal darüber irgendwo geschrieben. Abgesehen davon auf die Schnelle :

    http://www.mlwerke.de/me/me14/me14_340.htm

    http://www.holycross.edu/departments/classics/dawhite/

    Peltasten hießen so wegen der Pelta, die Hypaspisten wie die früheren Iphicratischen Peltasten führten nun die Ausrüstung eines Hopliten aber nicht mehr ! den alten schweren Hoplon, daher nannte man sie nach ihrem neuen leichteren Schild, einer schwereren Ausführung der Pelta eben auch Peltasten. So wie die Hopliten nach dem Hoplon benannt waren.

    Als dann auch die Phalanx nicht mehr den alten Hoplon führte, nannte man sie in der Folge nicht mehr Hopliten sondern Phalangiten. Um so eine Unterscheidung zu den anderen mit Pelta ausgerüsteten Truppen zu haben.

    Iphicrates kam auf die Idee mit diesen neuen Truppen in seinen Kämpfen als junger General gegen die Spartaner.

    In der Schlacht von Lechaeum 390 v Chr gelang es ihm mit relativ geringen athenischen Truppen von 600 Spartiaten 250 zu töten und die Schlacht für sich zu entscheiden. Die Spartiaten eskortierten einen Versorgunsgzug mit überlebenswichtigem Nachschub von Lechaeum nach Sicyon. Die Athener attackierten die Spartaner erst mit Fernwaffen und ließen sie ohne Nahkampf passieren, dann setzte Iphicrates seine Hopliten ein, mischte diese jedoch mit Peltasten und setzte sie ohne feste Formation in lockerer Aufstellung ein um die rechte Flanke der Spartiaten auf diese Weise schneller zu nehmen. Dazu legten seine Hopliten ihre Rüstung ab und führten nur ihre Hasta und den Schild. Die Spartanische Phalanx zerfiel und die Peltasten machten die Spartaner nieder.

    Anhand der Erfahrungen dieser Kämpfe rüstete Iphicrates einen Teil seiner Truppen um, und schuf eine Mischform aus alten Peltasten und Hopliten um für genau diese Fechtweise eine neue spezialisierte Truppengattung zu haben, eben die Iphicratischen Peltasten.

    Er schuf diese Truppen aus bisherigen Hopliten, rüstete sie aber mit einer Pelta anstelle des Hoplon aus und schuf auch die Beinschienen ab. Anstelle der Beinschienen trugen diese Truppen besonders hohe und stabile Stiefel die man nach dem General Iphicratis nannte.

    Der bisherige Küraß aus steifem Leinen wurde durch einen beweglicheren Steppgambeson ersetzt, als Helm ein schwereres thrakisches Modell verwendet daß dann zum Vorbild der makedonischen Helme der Phalanx wurde.

    Da diese Kämpfer nun leichter waren konnten sie sich auch viel besser gegen andere Peltasten zur Wehr setzen und die erstarrte und stark auf die Defensive gedrängte Phalanx wurde wieder beweglich und flexibler. Die alten Hoplitenphalangen erwiesen sich dem gegenüber als zu schwerfällig und konnten kaum noch anders als im gerade aus angriff oder steifer Verteidigung agieren, daß war gegen leichte und stark kavalleristisch gerprägte Gegner wie die Perser inzwischen tödlich geworden.

    Die Perser rüsteten zu dem Zeitpunkt ihre Streitkräfte massiv um und verweigerten einfach die Schlacht wenn ihnen das Gelände nicht passte, auf passendem Gelände aber mähten sie die Phalangen der alten Art weg. Sie benutzten auch in großem Umfang griechische Söldner in ihren Kriegen, da daß Perserreich von Aufständen geschüttelt war und man Einheimischen Aufgeboten mißtraute, da diese mehrmals nach ihrer Aufstellung einen Aufstand vom Zaun brachen.

    Die Perser gaben auch den Bogen als Waffe weitgehend auf und setzten auf schwere Wurfspeere. Nach den Kriegen in Griechenland trat Iphicrates in persische Dienste und begann zusammen mit persischen Kerntruppen die Rückeroberung Ägyptens daß zeitweilig wieder unabhängig geworden war.

    In diesen Kämpfen verlängerte er dann zunehmend die Lanzen seiner „Peltasten“ und setzte diese sowohl in lockererem Schwarum fechtend als auch in dichter Phalanx ein.
    Die Lanze wurde schließlich von ihm auf 12 ft erweitert, was ungefähr 3,60 m sind.

    Damit hatten diese Truppen deutlich längere Lanzen als ihre Gegner, griechische Söldner in ägyptischen Diensten, und mit dieser Lanzenlänge und ihrer größeren Mobilität konnten sie sich auch wieder der verbesserten persischen Kavallerie erwehren, die mit schweren Wurfspeeren, Lanzen und Pferdepanzerung ausgestattet worden war.

    373 wurde Iphicrates aber bei den Kämpfen in Ägypten durch Hofintrigen abgesägt und seine Truppen liefen darauf hin zum Feind über, folglich heuerten die Perser neue Truppen aus Griechenland an, diesmal vor allem Makedonischer Herkunft.

    Auch die Ausrüstung der normalen Peltasten wurde schwerer. Die bisher runden Pelta wurden bei den echten Peltasten nun Oval und viele Peltasten führten auch eine Hasta mit sich, um sich der Angriffe persischer Reiter bei ihren Söldnerdiensten im Osten zu erwehren.

    Ab 360 v Chr wurden die neuen Truppentypen auch in Griechenland durch die zurückkehrenden Söldner Standard, vorher war man bei der alten Phalanx geblieben.
    359 v Chr revolutionierte Phillip v Makedonien die makedonischen Heere. Er trennte aber die Iphicratischen Peltasten die beide Rollen, die der Phalanx und die von besonderen leichten Truppen einnehmen konnten wieder auf und schuf bei sehr ähnlicher Ausrüstung die Phalanx wie die Hypaspisten als getrennte Truppen aber mit exakt der Ausrüstung. Nur wurde erneut die Länger der Lanzen erhöht um wiederum einen Vorteil gegenüber den anderen griechischen Stadtstaaten zu haben, die ja auch ihre Truppen umgerüstet hatten.

    Das Phillip zwei getrennte Truppen schuf liegt einfach daran, daß er 1 viel größere Armeen erschaffen wollte, 2 die Truppen folglich nicht den Standard von der Ausbildung haben konnten die kleine spezialisierte Söldnertruppen hatten und 3 Spezialisierung in einem die Truppen in diesem in kürzerer Zeit besser werden läßt

    http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/war/Armor.htm

    http://www.onassis.gr/english/press/19102004.html

    http://www.mlahanas.de/Greeks/WarTech.htm

    http://www.ncl.ac.uk/shefton-museum/arms/greekarms.html

    http://www.3dlinks.com/gallery_fullview.cfm?id=10159

    http://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/se/~luv20009/Greek_shield_patterns_1.html

    Warum also wurden die Lanzen überhaupt länger ?!

    Der Grund liegt in der leichteren Rüstung, die den Kämpfer viel empfindlicher gegen feindliche Speere machte. Andererseits war die alte Hoplitenrüstung zu schwer, die alte Phalanx zu unbeweglich und nur für die Kriegsführung in Griechenland selbst wirklich geeignet.

    Die klassische Phalanx wurde von den Persern im Osten in Kleinasien immer wieder geschlagen und konnte sich nur in der Heimat behaupten, der Grund liegt darin, daß die Perser ihre Überlegene Kavallerie in den weiteren Arealen und Ebenen ausspielen konnten und daß dort bedingt durch den vielen Raum Bewegungskriege möglich waren, die Schlachten vermeidbar machten, die Perser verweigerten einfach den Kampf wo er ungünstig war und operierten an den Griechen vorbei.

    Auf diese Weise ging auch der ionische Aufstand gegen die Perser in mehreren verlorenen Landschlachten unter, obwohl selbst Spartiaten dort mitkämpften. In dem begrenzten und gebirgigen Raum Griechenlands aber, vor allem bedingt durch die Enge des Raumes konnten die Hopliten die Perser immer vernichtend schlagen wenn diese den Hopliten nicht ausweichen konnten bzw diese nicht umgehen konnten.

    Bei den Kämpfen der griechischen Söldner in persischen Diensten wurden dann die Rüstungen leichter, folglich mußten die Hopliten um sich zu schützen mehr Abstand zum Gegner gewinnen und machten die Lanzen länger, was wiederum bei den alten Hopliten mit ihren schweren Rüstungen unnötig war den 1 deckte die Rüstung und der Hoplon derart nach vorne daß ein kurzer Speer ausreichte 2 konnte man mit diesem besser fechten und stechen.

    Kaum bekannt ist, daß die Lanzen der Perser bei den Thermophylen LÄNGER waren als die der Griechen !! die angreifenden Perser hatten im ersten Perserkrieg noch längere Lanzen als die Griechen, das nützte ihnen aber wegen des Hoplon und der starken Armierung der Hopliten nichts und die Perser hatten keine Formationen und fochten in lockerer freier Aufstellung (mit Ausnahme der Unsterblichen Garde) und daher hatten sie keinen taktischen Druck als militärischer Körper gegen die Phalanx.

    Die klassische Phalanx wurde und war aber dann zu defensiv und die Peltasten gewannen immer mehr die Konflikte. Bis die Phalanx durch die Reformen von Iphicrates und deren konsequente Umsetzung dann durch Phillip wieder beweglich wurde und nun auch offensiv in Angriffskriegen über lange Distanzen wieder einsetzbar war.

    http://ancienthistory.about.com/gi/...w.ncl.ac.uk/shefton-museum/greeks/armour.html

    http://digilander.libero.it/tepec/falange.htm

    http://www.larp.com/hoplite/weapons.html

    http://www.larp.com/hoplite/photos.html

    http://www.sikyon.com/Sparta/history_eg.html


    We march... We march to war... We march... We fight... We are Spartans. Blood will fall, but it will not be ours... We march... Sparta is war reborn... we are the children of war... We are Spartans, No Mercy !!

    Tyrtaios
     
  13. Princeps

    Princeps Neues Mitglied

    Oh, stellst Du das Ergebnis dann bitte hier ein? Das wäre prima.
     
  14. Themistokles

    Themistokles Aktives Mitglied

    @ Quintus

    Danke für die schnelle Antwort, werde sie mir heute in Ruhe durchlesen. Den Link zu Engels kannte ich schon (lässt sich bei einem roten Elternhaus nicht vermeiden). Andere Vermerke zu ihm scheinen am Anfang dieses Pfades zu sein (und stammen von dir oder mir).

    @ Principes
    Direkt ins Forum stellen wäre schwer, da ich die 100 kb für Anhänge durch Bilder bestimmt überschreite (und es für Hausarbeiten andere Plattformen gibt). Ich kann sie aber an interessierte per Mail schicken.
     
  15. Princeps

    Princeps Neues Mitglied

    Das wäre prima.
     
  16. Wikinger

    Wikinger Neues Mitglied

    zu dem bild von themistokles: einer der vorigen beiträge hat ergeben, dass die hopliten furchteinflößende waffen und rüstungen besaßen, um dem gegner angst einzujagen. warum ist bei dem ersten bild der hoplit denn so simpel und überhaupt nich furchteinflößend dargestellt? ist er ein vorgänger des richtigen hopliten oder was?


    :confused: :confused: :confused: :confused: :confused: :confused:
     
  17. Princeps

    Princeps Neues Mitglied

    Hallo,
    welches Bild meinst Du denn??
    Aber im allgemeinen: ein Schild mit einem Meter Durchmesser, mit einem Bild, z.B. einer Gorgo, bemalt, über dem ein totenkopfähnlicher Metallhelm und unter dem metallene Beinschienen hervorblinken. Das dann ein paar hundert (gelegentlich wohl auch nur ein paar Dutzend) nebeneinander und klar ersichtlich mehrere hintereinander. Die Lanzen stehen wie ein Wald nach oben, die Lanzen der ersten Reihe deuten auf Gesichtshöhe des Betrachters.

    Ich denke das würde in der Realität auch auf einen abgebrühten Actionfilmkonsumenten wirken, zumindest wenn er selbst als einzige Bewaffnung eine Schleuder, einen Bogen und vielleicht eine lederne Jacke trägt oder, wenn er wohlhabend ist, sogar auch in einer Phalanx steht, in der die Leute vor sich hinzittern, an ihre Felder, ihre Frauen, Kinder und vor allem ihr Leben denken und lieber davonlaufen würden, als sich von der herankommenden Walze zerfetzen zu lassen.

    Der Hoplit selbst ist im Regelfall ein Bauer, der sich möglichst unmartialisch, aber bequem seine Waffen umhängt und am liebsten im Schatten etwas ißt und trinkt, also sich ausruht. Das wirkt dann nicht eben furchteinflößend. Zumal er eben Bauer ist und sich lieber mit seinem Nachbarn über Krume, Regen und Korn unterhält als über strategische Kriegsziele und wie Gegner möglichst im Massen zu töten sind.

    (Versuch einer Beschreibung des Bürger-Hopliten der klassischen Zeit. Die Kriegsgurgeln, die für Sold kämpften ab dem Ende des peloponnesischen Kriegs meine ich nicht.)
     
  18. Themistokles

    Themistokles Aktives Mitglied

    Zu den von Principes erwähnten Dingen kommt noch der Helmbusch, welcher den ganzen Krieger größer wirken lässt. Der Vergleich des Helmes mit einem Totenkopf ist nicht so schlecht, da man kaum das Gesicht, insbesondere die Augen, sieht und der Hoplit daher beinahe unmenschlich wirkt.
    @ Wikinger
    Du meinst wahrscheinlich das Bild des Modells das ich hier reingestellthabe: Bedenke, dass dieser Hoplit allein ist und sich nicht bewegt. Wenn eine Wand aus Schilden da steht oder sich entschlossen auf einen zubewegt (wenn nicht gar rennt) dann kommt die Angst schon.
     
  19. Themistokles

    Themistokles Aktives Mitglied

  20. asoka

    asoka Neues Mitglied

    Wenn jemand eine beeindruckende Sammlung von antiken Helmen sehen will, derzeit gibt`s auf der Homepage des Münchner Auktionshauses "Hermann Historica" (www.hermann-historica.de/) rund 50 Helme der ehemaligen Sammlung Axel Guttman zu bewundern. Einfach auf "Onlinekatalog" klicken und anschauen !
     

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